Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

Microsoft Corp. (NASDAQ:MSFT)

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Analysis of Operating Leases

Advanced level


Accounting Policy on Operating Leases

Microsoft determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, other current liabilities, and operating lease liabilities in Microsoft’s consolidated balance sheets. Finance leases are included in property and equipment, other current liabilities, and other long-term liabilities in Microsoft’s consolidated balance sheets.

ROU assets represent Microsoft’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As most of the leases do not provide an implicit rate, Microsoft generally uses the incremental borrowing rate based on the estimated rate of interest for collateralized borrowing over a similar term of the lease payments at commencement date. The operating lease ROU asset also includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives. The lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that Microsoft will exercise that option. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Microsoft has lease agreements with lease and non-lease components, which are generally accounted for separately. For certain equipment leases, such as vehicles, Microsoft accounts for the lease and non-lease components as a single lease component. Additionally, for certain equipment leases, Microsoft applies a portfolio approach to effectively account for the operating lease ROU assets and liabilities.

Source: 10-K (filing date: 2019-08-01).


Present Value of Future Operating Lease Payments (before Adoption of FASB Topic 842)

Microsoft Corp., future operating lease payments (before adoption of FASB Topic 842)

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Jun 30, 2019 Jun 30, 2018 Jun 30, 2017 Jun 30, 2016 Jun 30, 2015 Jun 30, 2014
Total undiscounted future operating lease payments
Discount rate1
 
Total present value of future operating lease payments

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-08-01), 10-K (filing date: 2018-08-03), 10-K (filing date: 2017-08-02), 10-K (filing date: 2016-07-28), 10-K (filing date: 2015-07-31), 10-K (filing date: 2014-07-31).

1 Weighted-average interest rate for Microsoft Corp.’s debt

Year Future operating lease payments (as reported) Year Future operating lease payments (estimated) Present value at
2018 2018
2019 2019
2020 2020
2021 2021
2022 2022
2023 and thereafter 2023
2024
2025
2026
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2017-08-02).

Year Future operating lease payments (as reported) Year Future operating lease payments (estimated) Present value at
2017 2017
2018 2018
2019 2019
2020 2020
2021 2021
2022 and thereafter 2022
2023
2024
2025
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2016-07-28).

Year Future operating lease payments (as reported) Year Future operating lease payments (estimated) Present value at
2016 2016
2017 2017
2018 2018
2019 2019
2020 2020
2021 and thereafter 2021
2022
2023
2024
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2015-07-31).

Year Future operating lease payments (as reported) Year Future operating lease payments (estimated) Present value at
2015 2015
2016 2016
2017 2017
2018 2018
2019 2019
2020 and thereafter 2020
2021
2022
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2014-07-31).


Adjustments to Financial Statements for Operating Leases

Microsoft Corp., adjustments to financial statements

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Jun 30, 2019 Jun 30, 2018 Jun 30, 2017 Jun 30, 2016 Jun 30, 2015 Jun 30, 2014
Adjustment to Total Assets
Total assets (as reported)
Add: Operating lease right-of-use asset (before adoption of FASB Topic 842)1
Total assets (adjusted)
Adjustment to Total Debt
Total debt (as reported)
Add: Operating lease liability (before adoption of FASB Topic 842)2
Add: Operating lease liabilities (included in Other current liabilities)
Add: Long-term operating lease liabilities
Total debt (adjusted)

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-08-01), 10-K (filing date: 2018-08-03), 10-K (filing date: 2017-08-02), 10-K (filing date: 2016-07-28), 10-K (filing date: 2015-07-31), 10-K (filing date: 2014-07-31).

1, 2 Equal to total present value of future operating lease payments.


Microsoft Corp., Financial Data: Reported vs. Adjusted


Adjusted Financial Ratios for Operating Leases (Summary)

Microsoft Corp., adjusted financial ratios

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Jun 30, 2019 Jun 30, 2018 Jun 30, 2017 Jun 30, 2016 Jun 30, 2015 Jun 30, 2014
Total Asset Turnover1
Reported total asset turnover
Adjusted total asset turnover
Debt to Equity2
Reported debt to equity
Adjusted debt to equity
Return on Assets3 (ROA)
Reported ROA
Adjusted ROA

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-08-01), 10-K (filing date: 2018-08-03), 10-K (filing date: 2017-08-02), 10-K (filing date: 2016-07-28), 10-K (filing date: 2015-07-31), 10-K (filing date: 2014-07-31).

Financial ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. Microsoft Corp.’s adjusted total asset turnover ratio improved from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.
Adjusted debt to equity A solvency ratio calculated as adjusted total debt divided by total shareholders’ equity. Microsoft Corp.’s adjusted debt to equity ratio improved from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by adjusted total assets. Microsoft Corp.’s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2017 to 2018 but then improved from 2018 to 2019 exceeding 2017 level.

Microsoft Corp., Financial Ratios: Reported vs. Adjusted


Adjusted Total Asset Turnover

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Jun 30, 2019 Jun 30, 2018 Jun 30, 2017 Jun 30, 2016 Jun 30, 2015 Jun 30, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Revenue
Total assets
Activity Ratio
Total asset turnover1
Adjusted for Operating Leases
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Revenue
Adjusted total assets
Activity Ratio
Adjusted total asset turnover2

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-08-01), 10-K (filing date: 2018-08-03), 10-K (filing date: 2017-08-02), 10-K (filing date: 2016-07-28), 10-K (filing date: 2015-07-31), 10-K (filing date: 2014-07-31).

2019 Calculations

1 Total asset turnover = Revenue ÷ Total assets
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted total asset turnover = Revenue ÷ Adjusted total assets
= ÷ =

Activity ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. Microsoft Corp.’s adjusted total asset turnover ratio improved from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Adjusted Debt to Equity

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Jun 30, 2019 Jun 30, 2018 Jun 30, 2017 Jun 30, 2016 Jun 30, 2015 Jun 30, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Total debt
Stockholders’ equity
Solvency Ratio
Debt to equity1
Adjusted for Operating Leases
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Adjusted total debt
Stockholders’ equity
Solvency Ratio
Adjusted debt to equity2

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-08-01), 10-K (filing date: 2018-08-03), 10-K (filing date: 2017-08-02), 10-K (filing date: 2016-07-28), 10-K (filing date: 2015-07-31), 10-K (filing date: 2014-07-31).

2019 Calculations

1 Debt to equity = Total debt ÷ Stockholders’ equity
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted debt to equity = Adjusted total debt ÷ Stockholders’ equity
= ÷ =

Solvency ratio Description The company
Adjusted debt-to-equity A solvency ratio calculated as adjusted total debt divided by total shareholders’ equity. Microsoft Corp.’s adjusted debt-to-equity ratio improved from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Jun 30, 2019 Jun 30, 2018 Jun 30, 2017 Jun 30, 2016 Jun 30, 2015 Jun 30, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income
Total assets
Profitability Ratio
ROA1
Adjusted for Operating Leases
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income
Adjusted total assets
Profitability Ratio
Adjusted ROA2

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-08-01), 10-K (filing date: 2018-08-03), 10-K (filing date: 2017-08-02), 10-K (filing date: 2016-07-28), 10-K (filing date: 2015-07-31), 10-K (filing date: 2014-07-31).

2019 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income ÷ Total assets
= 100 × ÷ =

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Net income ÷ Adjusted total assets
= 100 × ÷ =

Profitability ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by adjusted total assets. Microsoft Corp.’s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2017 to 2018 but then improved from 2018 to 2019 exceeding 2017 level.