Stock Analysis on Net
Stock Analysis on Net

International Business Machines Corp. (NYSE:IBM)

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Economic Value Added (EVA)

Advanced level


Economic Profit

International Business Machines Corp., economic profit calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended: Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)1
Cost of capital2
Invested capital3
 
Economic profit4

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-23).

1 NOPAT. See details »

2 Cost of capital. See details »

3 Invested capital. See details »

4 2019 Calculation
Economic profit = NOPAT – Cost of capital × Invested capital
= × =

Item Description The company
Economic profit Economic profit is a measure of corporate performance computed by taking the spread between the return on invested capital and the cost of capital, and multiplying by the invested capital. International Business Machines Corp.’s economic profit increased from 2017 to 2018 but then slightly decreased from 2018 to 2019.

Net Operating Profit after Taxes (NOPAT)

International Business Machines Corp., NOPAT calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended: Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Net income attributable to IBM
Deferred income tax expense (benefit)1
Increase (decrease) in allowances for doubtful notes and accounts receivable2
Increase (decrease) in deferred income3
Increase (decrease) in product warranty liability4
Increase (decrease) in equity equivalents5
Interest expense
Interest expense, operating lease liability6
Adjusted interest expense
Tax benefit of interest expense7
Adjusted interest expense, after taxes8
(Gain) loss on marketable securities
Investment income, before taxes
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income9
Investment income, after taxes10
(Income) loss from discontinued operations, net of tax11
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-23).

1 Elimination of deferred tax expense. See details »

2 Addition of increase (decrease) in allowances for doubtful notes and accounts receivable.

3 Addition of increase (decrease) in deferred income.

4 Addition of increase (decrease) in product warranty liability.

5 Addition of increase (decrease) in equity equivalents to net income attributable to IBM.

6 2019 Calculation
Interest expense on capitalized operating leases = Operating lease liability × Discount rate
= × =

7 2019 Calculation
Tax benefit of interest expense = Adjusted interest expense × Statutory income tax rate
= × 21.00% =

8 Addition of after taxes interest expense to net income attributable to IBM.

9 2019 Calculation
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income = Investment income, before tax × Statutory income tax rate
= × 21.00% =

10 Elimination of after taxes investment income.

11 Elimination of discontinued operations.

Item Description The company
NOPAT Net operating profit after taxes is income from operations, but after removement of taxes calculated on cash basis that are relevant to operating income. International Business Machines Corp.’s NOPAT increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Cash Operating Taxes

International Business Machines Corp., cash operating taxes calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended: Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Provision for income taxes
Less: Deferred income tax expense (benefit)
Add: Tax savings from interest expense
Less: Tax imposed on investment income
Cash operating taxes

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-23).

Item Description The company
Cash operating taxes Cash operating taxes are estimated by adjusting income tax expense for changes in deferred taxes and tax benefit from the interest deduction. International Business Machines Corp.’s cash operating taxes decreased from 2017 to 2018 but then slightly increased from 2018 to 2019.

Invested Capital

International Business Machines Corp., invested capital calculation (financing approach)

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Short-term debt
Long-term debt, excluding current maturities
Operating lease liability1
Total reported debt & leases
Total IBM stockholders’ equity
Net deferred tax (assets) liabilities2
Allowances for doubtful notes and accounts receivable3
Deferred income4
Product warranty liability5
Equity equivalents6
Accumulated other comprehensive (income) loss, net of tax7
Noncontrolling interests
Adjusted total IBM stockholders’ equity
Marketable securities8
Invested capital

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-23).

1 Addition of capitalized operating leases.

2 Elimination of deferred taxes from assets and liabilities. See details »

3 Addition of allowance for doubtful accounts receivable.

4 Addition of deferred income.

5 Addition of product warranty liability.

6 Addition of equity equivalents to total IBM stockholders’ equity.

7 Removal of accumulated other comprehensive income.

8 Subtraction of marketable securities.

Item Description The company
Invested capital Capital is an approximation of the economic book value of all cash invested in going-concern business activities. International Business Machines Corp.’s invested capital increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Cost of Capital

International Business Machines Corp., cost of capital calculations

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-25).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-26).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-23).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »


Economic Spread Ratio

International Business Machines Corp., economic spread ratio calculation, comparison to benchmarks

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Economic profit1
Invested capital2
Performance Ratio
Economic spread ratio3
Benchmarks
Economic Spread Ratio, Competitors4
Adobe Inc.
Alphabet Inc.
Autodesk Inc.
Facebook Inc.
Intuit Inc.
Microsoft Corp.
Oracle Corp.
salesforce.com inc.
ServiceNow Inc.

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-23).

1 Economic profit. See details »

2 Invested capital. See details »

3 2019 Calculation
Economic spread ratio = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Invested capital
= 100 × ÷ =

4 Click competitor name to see calculations.

Performance ratio Description The company
Economic spread ratio The ratio of economic profit to invested capital, also equal to the difference between return on invested capital (ROIC) and cost of capital. International Business Machines Corp.’s economic spread ratio improved from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Economic Profit Margin

International Business Machines Corp., economic profit margin calculation, comparison to benchmarks

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Economic profit1
 
Revenue
Add: Increase (decrease) in deferred income
Adjusted revenue
Performance Ratio
Economic profit margin2
Benchmarks
Economic Profit Margin, Competitors3
Adobe Inc.
Alphabet Inc.
Autodesk Inc.
Facebook Inc.
Intuit Inc.
Microsoft Corp.
Oracle Corp.
salesforce.com inc.
ServiceNow Inc.

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-23).

1 Economic profit. See details »

2 2019 Calculation
Economic profit margin = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Adjusted revenue
= 100 × ÷ =

3 Click competitor name to see calculations.

Performance ratio Description The company
Economic profit margin The ratio of economic profit to sales. It is the company’s profit margin covering income efficiency and asset management. Economic profit margin is not biased in favor of capital-intensive business models, because any added capital is a cost to the economic profit margin. International Business Machines Corp.’s economic profit margin improved from 2017 to 2018 but then slightly deteriorated from 2018 to 2019.