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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc


Analysis of Property, Plant and Equipment

Difficulty: Advanced


Property, Plant and Equipment Accounting Policy

Depreciation and Amortization

Property, plant and equipment are carried at cost and depreciated over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives of certain depreciable assets are as follows: buildings, 30 to 50 years; building equipment, 10 to 20 years; land improvements, 20 years; production, engineering, office and other equipment, 2 to 20 years; and information technology equipment, 1.5 to 5 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the related lease term, rarely exceeding 25 years.

Capitalized software costs incurred or acquired after technological feasibility has been established are amortized over periods ranging up to 3 years. Capitalized costs for internal-use software are amortized on a straight-line basis over periods ranging up to 3 years. Other intangible assets are amortized over periods between 1 and 7 years.

Source: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27).


Property, Plant and Equipment Disclosure

International Business Machines Corp., Statement of Financial Position, Property, Plant and Equipment

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Land and land improvements hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Buildings and building and leasehold improvements hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Information technology equipment hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Production, engineering, office and other equipment hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Buildings and building improvements hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Plant, laboratory and office equipment hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Rental machines hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Property, plant and equipment, gross hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Accumulated depreciation hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Property, plant and equipment, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-24), 10-K (filing date: 2014-02-25).

Item Description The company
Property, plant and equipment, gross Amount before accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization of physical assets used in the normal conduct of business and not intended for resale. Examples include, but are not limited to, land, buildings, machinery and equipment, office equipment, and furniture and fixtures. International Business Machines Corp.'s property, plant and equipment, gross increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Property, plant and equipment, net Amount after accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization of physical assets used in the normal conduct of business to produce goods and services and not intended for resale. Examples include, but are not limited to, land, buildings, machinery and equipment, office equipment, and furniture and fixtures. International Business Machines Corp.'s property, plant and equipment, net increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Property, Plant and Equipment Ratios (Summary)

International Business Machines Corp., Property, Plant and Equipment Ratios

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Average age hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Estimated total useful life (years) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Estimated age, time elapsed since purchase (years) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Estimated remaining life (years) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-24), 10-K (filing date: 2014-02-25).

Ratio Description The company
Average age As long as straight-line depreciation is used, this is an accurate estimate of asset age as a percentage of depreciable life. The relative age is a useful measure of whether the company's fixed asset base is old or new. Newer assets are likely to be more efficient. International Business Machines Corp.'s average age of depreciable property, plant and equipment deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Estimated total useful life Over longer time periods, this ratio is a useful measure of company's depreciation policy and can be used for comparisons with competitors. International Business Machines Corp.'s estimated total useful life of depreciable property, plant and equipment declined from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly increased from 2016 to 2017.
Estimated time elapsed since purchase The approximate age in years of a company's fixed assets. Useful for comparison purposes. International Business Machines Corp.'s estimated time elapsed since purchase of depreciable property, plant and equipment improved from 2015 to 2016 but then deteriorated significantly from 2016 to 2017.
Estimated remaining life International Business Machines Corp.'s estimated remaining life of depreciable property, plant and equipment declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Average Age

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Accumulated depreciation hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Property, plant and equipment, gross hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Land and land improvements hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Average age1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-24), 10-K (filing date: 2014-02-25).

2017 Calculations

1 Average age = 100 × Accumulated depreciation ÷ (Property, plant and equipment, gross – Land and land improvements)
= 100 × hidden ÷ (hiddenhidden) = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Average age As long as straight-line depreciation is used, this is an accurate estimate of asset age as a percentage of depreciable life. The relative age is a useful measure of whether the company's fixed asset base is old or new. Newer assets are likely to be more efficient. International Business Machines Corp.'s average age of depreciable property, plant and equipment deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Estimated Total Useful Life

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Property, plant and equipment, gross hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Land and land improvements hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Depreciation expense hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Estimated total useful life (years)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-24), 10-K (filing date: 2014-02-25).

2017 Calculations

1 Estimated total useful life (years) = (Property, plant and equipment, gross – Land and land improvements) ÷ Depreciation expense
= (hiddenhidden) ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Estimated total useful life Over longer time periods, this ratio is a useful measure of company's depreciation policy and can be used for comparisons with competitors. International Business Machines Corp.'s estimated total useful life of depreciable property, plant and equipment declined from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly increased from 2016 to 2017.

Estimated Age, Time Elapsed since Purchase

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Accumulated depreciation hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Depreciation expense hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Time elapsed since purchase (years)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-24), 10-K (filing date: 2014-02-25).

2017 Calculations

1 Time elapsed since purchase (years) = Accumulated depreciation ÷ Depreciation expense
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Estimated time elapsed since purchase The approximate age in years of a company's fixed assets. Useful for comparison purposes. International Business Machines Corp.'s estimated time elapsed since purchase of depreciable property, plant and equipment improved from 2015 to 2016 but then deteriorated significantly from 2016 to 2017.

Estimated Remaining Life

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Property, plant and equipment, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Land and land improvements hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Depreciation expense hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Estimated remaining life (years)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-24), 10-K (filing date: 2014-02-25).

2017 Calculations

1 Estimated remaining life (years) = (Property, plant and equipment, net – Land and land improvements) ÷ Depreciation expense
= (hiddenhidden) ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Estimated remaining life International Business Machines Corp.'s estimated remaining life of depreciable property, plant and equipment declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.