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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

Oracle Corp. (ORCL)


Analysis of Income Taxes

Difficulty: Advanced


Income Tax Accounting Policy

Oracle accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes (ASC 740). Deferred income taxes are recorded for the expected tax consequences of temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and amounts recognized for income tax purposes. Oracle records a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred tax assets to the amount of future tax benefit that is more likely than not to be realized.

A two-step approach is applied pursuant to ASC 740 in the recognition and measurement of uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. The first step is to determine if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained in an audit, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement. Oracle recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in the provision for income taxes line of the consolidated statements of operations.

During fiscal 2019, Oracle completed the analysis of the accounting policy election required with regard to the Tax Act’s Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (GILTI) provision. The FASB allows companies to adopt a policy election to account for GILTI under one of two methods: (i) account for GILTI as a component of tax expense in the period in which a company is subject to the rules (the period cost method), or (ii) account for GILTI in a company’s measurement of deferred taxes (the deferred method). Oracle elected the deferred method, under which Oracle recorded the income tax expense impact to the consolidated financial statements during fiscal 2019.

Source: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-21).


Income Tax Expense (Benefit)

Oracle Corp., income tax expense (benefit), continuing operations

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended May 31, 2019 May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014
Federal hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
State hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Foreign hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Current provision hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Federal hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
State hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Foreign hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred provision (benefit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Provision for income taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2015-06-25), 10-K (filing date: 2014-06-26).

Item Description The company
Current provision Amount of current income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to taxable income (loss) from continuing operations. Oracle Corp.’s current provision increased from 2017 to 2018 but then declined significantly from 2018 to 2019.
Deferred provision (benefit) Amount of deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to income (loss) from continuing operations. Oracle Corp.’s deferred provision (benefit) declined from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.
Provision for income taxes Amount of current income tax expense (benefit) and deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to continuing operations. Oracle Corp.’s provision for income taxes increased from 2017 to 2018 but then declined significantly from 2018 to 2019.

Effective Income Tax Rate (EITR)

Oracle Corp., effective income tax rate (EITR) reconciliation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
May 31, 2019 May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014
Federal statutory income tax rate hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Effective income tax rate, before impact of the Tax Act of 2017 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Effective income tax rate hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2015-06-25), 10-K (filing date: 2014-06-26).

Item Description The company
Effective income tax rate, before impact of the Tax Act of 2017 Percentage of current income tax expense (benefit) and deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to continuing operations. Oracle Corp.’s effective income tax rate, before impact of the Tax Act of 2017 declined from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Components of Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities

Oracle Corp., components of deferred tax assets and liabilities

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
May 31, 2019 May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014
Accruals and allowances hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Employee compensation and benefits hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Differences in timing of revenue recognition hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Basis of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax credit and net operating loss carryforwards hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Other hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred tax assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Valuation allowance hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred tax assets, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Unrealized gain on stock hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Acquired intangible assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
GILTI deferred hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Unremitted earnings hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Basis of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Other hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred tax liabilities hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net deferred tax assets (liabilities) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2015-06-25), 10-K (filing date: 2014-06-26).

Item Description The company
Deferred tax assets Amount before allocation of valuation allowances of deferred tax asset attributable to deductible temporary differences and carryforwards. Oracle Corp.’s deferred tax assets declined from 2017 to 2018 but then increased from 2018 to 2019 exceeding 2017 level.
Deferred tax assets, net Amount after allocation of valuation allowances of deferred tax asset attributable to deductible temporary differences and carryforwards. Oracle Corp.’s deferred tax assets, net declined from 2017 to 2018 but then increased from 2018 to 2019 exceeding 2017 level.
Net deferred tax assets (liabilities) Amount, after allocation of valuation allowances and deferred tax liability, of deferred tax asset attributable to deductible differences and carryforwards, without jurisdictional netting. Oracle Corp.’s net deferred tax assets (liabilities) increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities, Classification

Oracle Corp., deferred tax assets and liabilities, classification

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2015-06-25), 10-K (filing date: 2014-06-26).

Item Description The company
Non-current deferred tax assets Amount, after allocation of valuation allowances and deferred tax liability, of deferred tax asset attributable to deductible differences and carryforwards, with jurisdictional netting and classified as noncurrent. Oracle Corp.’s non-current deferred tax assets increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.
Non-current deferred tax liabilities (in Other non-current liabilities) Amount, after deferred tax asset, of deferred tax liability attributable to taxable differences, with jurisdictional netting and classified as noncurrent. Oracle Corp.’s non-current deferred tax liabilities (in Other non-current liabilities) declined from 2017 to 2018 but then increased from 2018 to 2019 not reaching 2017 level.

Analyst Adjustments: Removal of Deferred Taxes

Oracle Corp., adjustments to financial data

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
May 31, 2019 May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014
Adjustment to Current Assets
Current assets (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Current deferred tax assets, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Current assets (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Total Assets
Total assets (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Current deferred tax assets, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax assets, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Current Liabilities
Current liabilities (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Current deferred tax liabilities, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Current liabilities (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Total Liabilities
Total liabilities (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Current deferred tax liabilities, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax liabilities, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total liabilities (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Total Oracle Corporation Stockholders’ Equity
Total Oracle Corporation stockholders’ equity (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Net deferred tax assets (liabilities) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total Oracle Corporation stockholders’ equity (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Net Income
Net income (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Add: Deferred income tax expense (benefit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net income (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2015-06-25), 10-K (filing date: 2014-06-26).


Oracle Corp., Financial Data: Reported vs. Adjusted


Adjusted Ratios: Removal of Deferred Taxes (Summary)

Oracle Corp., adjusted ratios

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
May 31, 2019 May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014
Current Ratio
Reported current ratio hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted current ratio hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net Profit Margin
Reported net profit margin hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted net profit margin hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total Asset Turnover
Reported total asset turnover hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total asset turnover hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Financial Leverage
Reported financial leverage hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted financial leverage hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted ROE hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted ROA hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2015-06-25), 10-K (filing date: 2014-06-26).

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted current ratio A liquidity ratio calculated as adjusted current assets divided by adjusted current liabilities. Oracle Corp.’s adjusted current ratio improved from 2017 to 2018 but then deteriorated significantly from 2018 to 2019.
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. Oracle Corp.’s adjusted net profit margin deteriorated from 2017 to 2018 but then improved from 2018 to 2019 exceeding 2017 level.
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. Oracle Corp.’s adjusted total asset turnover improved from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Oracle Corp.’s adjusted financial leverage increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders’ equity. Oracle Corp.’s adjusted ROE deteriorated from 2017 to 2018 but then improved from 2018 to 2019 exceeding 2017 level.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. Oracle Corp.’s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2017 to 2018 but then improved from 2018 to 2019 exceeding 2017 level.

Oracle Corp., Ratios: Reported vs. Adjusted


Adjusted Current Ratio

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
May 31, 2019 May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Current assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Current liabilities hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Current ratio1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted current assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted current liabilities hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted current ratio2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2015-06-25), 10-K (filing date: 2014-06-26).

2019 Calculations

1 Current ratio = Current assets ÷ Current liabilities
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted current ratio = Adjusted current assets ÷ Adjusted current liabilities
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted current ratio A liquidity ratio calculated as adjusted current assets divided by adjusted current liabilities. Oracle Corp.’s adjusted current ratio improved from 2017 to 2018 but then deteriorated significantly from 2018 to 2019.

Adjusted Net Profit Margin

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
May 31, 2019 May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Revenues hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Net profit margin1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Revenues hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted net profit margin2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2015-06-25), 10-K (filing date: 2014-06-26).

2019 Calculations

1 Net profit margin = 100 × Net income ÷ Revenues
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted net profit margin = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Revenues
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. Oracle Corp.’s adjusted net profit margin deteriorated from 2017 to 2018 but then improved from 2018 to 2019 exceeding 2017 level.

Adjusted Total Asset Turnover

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
May 31, 2019 May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Revenues hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Total asset turnover1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Revenues hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted total asset turnover2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2015-06-25), 10-K (filing date: 2014-06-26).

2019 Calculations

1 Total asset turnover = Revenues ÷ Total assets
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted total asset turnover = Revenues ÷ Adjusted total assets
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. Oracle Corp.’s adjusted total asset turnover improved from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Adjusted Financial Leverage

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
May 31, 2019 May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total Oracle Corporation stockholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Financial leverage1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total Oracle Corporation stockholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted financial leverage2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2015-06-25), 10-K (filing date: 2014-06-26).

2019 Calculations

1 Financial leverage = Total assets ÷ Total Oracle Corporation stockholders’ equity
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted financial leverage = Adjusted total assets ÷ Adjusted total Oracle Corporation stockholders’ equity
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Oracle Corp.’s adjusted financial leverage increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
May 31, 2019 May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total Oracle Corporation stockholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
ROE1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total Oracle Corporation stockholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted ROE2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2015-06-25), 10-K (filing date: 2014-06-26).

2019 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net income ÷ Total Oracle Corporation stockholders’ equity
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Adjusted total Oracle Corporation stockholders’ equity
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders’ equity. Oracle Corp.’s adjusted ROE deteriorated from 2017 to 2018 but then improved from 2018 to 2019 exceeding 2017 level.

Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
May 31, 2019 May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
ROA1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted ROA2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-22), 10-K (filing date: 2015-06-25), 10-K (filing date: 2014-06-26).

2019 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income ÷ Total assets
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Adjusted total assets
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. Oracle Corp.’s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2017 to 2018 but then improved from 2018 to 2019 exceeding 2017 level.