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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

Booking Holdings Inc. (BKNG)


Analysis of Income Taxes

Difficulty: Advanced


Income Tax Accounting Policy

Booking Holdings accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method. Booking Holdings records the estimated future tax effects of temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and amounts reported in the Consolidated Balance Sheets, as well as operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred taxes are classified as noncurrent in the balance sheet.

Booking Holdings records deferred tax assets to the extent it believes these assets will more likely than not be realized. Booking Holdings regularly reviews its deferred tax assets for recoverability considering historical profitability, projected future taxable income, the expected timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences, the carryforward periods available for tax reporting purposes, and tax planning strategies. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets depends on the generation of future taxable income during the period in which related temporary differences become deductible. In determining the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the financial statements or tax returns, significant judgments, estimates, and interpretation of statutes are required.

Deferred taxes are measured using the enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date of such change.

Booking Holdings recognizes liabilities when it believes that uncertain positions may not be fully sustained upon audit by the tax authorities. Liabilities recognized for uncertain tax positions are based on a two-step approach for recognition and measurement. First, Booking Holdings evaluates the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit based on its technical merits. Second, Booking Holdings measures the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Interest and penalties attributable to uncertain tax positions, if any, are recognized as a component of income tax expense.

In 2018 Booking Holdings adopted an accounting policy to treat taxes on global intangible low-taxed income ("GILTI") introduced by the Tax Act as period costs.

Source: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27).


Income Tax Expense (Benefit)

Booking Holdings Inc., income tax expense (benefit), continuing operations

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
International hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
U.S. Federal hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
U.S. State hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Current hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
International hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
U.S. Federal hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
U.S. State hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Income tax expense hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-17), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-19).

Item Description The company
Current Amount of current income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to taxable income (loss) from continuing operations. Booking Holdings Inc.’s current increased from 2016 to 2017 but then slightly declined from 2017 to 2018 not reaching 2016 level.
Deferred Amount of deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to income (loss) from continuing operations. Booking Holdings Inc.’s deferred increased from 2016 to 2017 but then declined significantly from 2017 to 2018.
Income tax expense Amount of current income tax expense (benefit) and deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to continuing operations. Booking Holdings Inc.’s income tax expense increased from 2016 to 2017 but then slightly declined from 2017 to 2018 not reaching 2016 level.

Effective Income Tax Rate (EITR)

Booking Holdings Inc., effective income tax rate (EITR) reconciliation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
U.S. federal statutory income tax rate hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Effective income tax rate, before Tax Act hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Effective income tax rate hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-17), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-19).

Item Description The company
Effective income tax rate, before Tax Act Percentage of current income tax expense (benefit) and deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to continuing operations. Booking Holdings Inc.’s effective income tax rate, before Tax Act declined from 2016 to 2017 but then slightly increased from 2017 to 2018.

Components of Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities

Booking Holdings Inc., components of deferred tax assets and liabilities

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Net operating loss carryforward, U.S. hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net operating loss carryforward, International hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Accrued expenses hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Stock-based compensation and other stock based payments hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Currency translation adjustment hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax credits hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Euro-denominated debt hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Property and equipment hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Other hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred tax assets, gross hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Valuation allowance on deferred tax assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred tax assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Discount on convertible notes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Intangible assets and other hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Euro denominated debt hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Fixed assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
State income tax on accumulated unremitted international earnings hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Unrealized gain on investments hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Other hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred tax liabilities hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net deferred tax assets (liabilities) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-17), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-19).

Item Description The company
Deferred tax assets, gross Amount before allocation of valuation allowances of deferred tax asset attributable to deductible temporary differences and carryforwards. Booking Holdings Inc.’s deferred tax assets, gross increased from 2016 to 2017 but then slightly declined from 2017 to 2018.
Deferred tax assets Amount after allocation of valuation allowances of deferred tax asset attributable to deductible temporary differences and carryforwards. Booking Holdings Inc.’s deferred tax assets increased from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.
Net deferred tax assets (liabilities) Amount, after allocation of valuation allowances and deferred tax liability, of deferred tax asset attributable to deductible differences and carryforwards, without jurisdictional netting. Booking Holdings Inc.’s net deferred tax assets (liabilities) increased from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities, Classification

Booking Holdings Inc., deferred tax assets and liabilities, classification

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-17), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-19).

Item Description The company
Noncurrent deferred tax assets (reported in Other assets) Amount, after allocation of valuation allowances and deferred tax liability, of deferred tax asset attributable to deductible differences and carryforwards, with jurisdictional netting and classified as noncurrent. Booking Holdings Inc.’s noncurrent deferred tax assets (reported in Other assets) increased from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.
Noncurrent deferred tax liabilities Amount, after deferred tax asset, of deferred tax liability attributable to taxable differences, with jurisdictional netting and classified as noncurrent. Booking Holdings Inc.’s noncurrent deferred tax liabilities declined from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Analyst Adjustments: Removal of Deferred Taxes

Booking Holdings Inc., adjustments to financial data

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Adjustment to Current Assets
Current assets (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Current deferred tax assets, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Current assets (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Total Assets
Total assets (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Current deferred tax assets, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax assets, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Current Liabilities
Current liabilities (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Current deferred tax liabilities, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Current liabilities (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Total Liabilities
Total liabilities (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Current deferred tax liabilities, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax liabilities, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total liabilities (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Stockholders’ Equity
Stockholders’ equity (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Net deferred tax assets (liabilities) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Stockholders’ equity (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Net Income
Net income (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Add: Deferred income tax expense (benefit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net income (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-17), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-19).


Booking Holdings Inc., Financial Data: Reported vs. Adjusted


Adjusted Ratios: Removal of Deferred Taxes (Summary)

Booking Holdings Inc., adjusted ratios

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Current Ratio
Reported current ratio hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted current ratio hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net Profit Margin
Reported net profit margin hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted net profit margin hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total Asset Turnover
Reported total asset turnover hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total asset turnover hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Financial Leverage
Reported financial leverage hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted financial leverage hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted ROE hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted ROA hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-17), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-19).

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted current ratio A liquidity ratio calculated as adjusted current assets divided by adjusted current liabilities. Booking Holdings Inc.’s adjusted current ratio improved from 2016 to 2017 but then slightly deteriorated from 2017 to 2018.
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. Booking Holdings Inc.’s adjusted net profit margin deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. Booking Holdings Inc.’s adjusted total asset turnover deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Booking Holdings Inc.’s adjusted financial leverage increased from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders’ equity. Booking Holdings Inc.’s adjusted ROE improved from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. Booking Holdings Inc.’s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.

Booking Holdings Inc., Ratios: Reported vs. Adjusted


Adjusted Current Ratio

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Current assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Current liabilities hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Current ratio1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted current assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted current liabilities hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted current ratio2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-17), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-19).

2018 Calculations

1 Current ratio = Current assets ÷ Current liabilities
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted current ratio = Adjusted current assets ÷ Adjusted current liabilities
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted current ratio A liquidity ratio calculated as adjusted current assets divided by adjusted current liabilities. Booking Holdings Inc.’s adjusted current ratio improved from 2016 to 2017 but then slightly deteriorated from 2017 to 2018.

Adjusted Net Profit Margin

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Revenues hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Net profit margin1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Revenues hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted net profit margin2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-17), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-19).

2018 Calculations

1 Net profit margin = 100 × Net income ÷ Revenues
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted net profit margin = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Revenues
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. Booking Holdings Inc.’s adjusted net profit margin deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.

Adjusted Total Asset Turnover

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Revenues hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Total asset turnover1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Revenues hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted total asset turnover2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-17), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-19).

2018 Calculations

1 Total asset turnover = Revenues ÷ Total assets
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted total asset turnover = Revenues ÷ Adjusted total assets
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. Booking Holdings Inc.’s adjusted total asset turnover deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.

Adjusted Financial Leverage

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Stockholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Financial leverage1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted stockholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted financial leverage2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-17), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-19).

2018 Calculations

1 Financial leverage = Total assets ÷ Stockholders’ equity
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted financial leverage = Adjusted total assets ÷ Adjusted stockholders’ equity
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Booking Holdings Inc.’s adjusted financial leverage increased from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Stockholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
ROE1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted stockholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted ROE2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-17), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-19).

2018 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net income ÷ Stockholders’ equity
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Adjusted stockholders’ equity
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders’ equity. Booking Holdings Inc.’s adjusted ROE improved from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
ROA1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted ROA2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-17), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-19).

2018 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income ÷ Total assets
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Adjusted total assets
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. Booking Holdings Inc.’s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.