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Analysis of Goodwill and Intangible Assets

Difficulty: Advanced


Goodwill and Intangible Assets Accounting Policy

GOODWILL

Goodwill is recognized for the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of tangible and identifiable intangible net assets of businesses acquired. Several factors give rise to goodwill in FedEx's acquisitions, such as the expected benefits from synergies of the combination and the existing workforce of the acquired business. Goodwill is reviewed at least annually for impairment. In the evaluation of goodwill impairment, FedEx performs a qualitative assessment to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If the qualitative assessment is not conclusive, FedEx proceeds to test goodwill for impairment, including comparing the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value (including attributable goodwill). Fair value for FedEx's reporting units is determined using an income or market approach incorporating market participant considerations and management's assumptions on revenue growth rates, operating margins, discount rates and expected capital expenditures. Fair value determinations may include both internal and third-party valuations. Unless circumstances otherwise dictate, FedEx performs the annual impairment testing in the fourth quarter.

INTANGIBLE ASSETS

Intangible assets primarily include customer relationships, technology assets and trademarks acquired in business combinations. Intangible assets are amortized over periods ranging from 3 to 15 years, either on a straight-line basis or on a basis consistent with the pattern in which the economic benefits are realized.

Source: FedEx Corp., Annual Report


Goodwill and Intangible Assets Disclosure

FedEx Corp., Statement of Financial Position, Goodwill and Intangible Assets

USD $ in millions

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May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014 May 31, 2013
Goodwill 6,973  7,154  6,747  3,810  2,790  2,755 
Customer relationships 676  656  912  338 
Technology 68  54  123  34 
Trademarks and other 141  136  202  60  57  72 
Other intangible assets, gross carrying amount 885  846  1,237  432  57  72 
Accumulated amortization (405) (317) (229) (225)
Other intangible assets, net book value 480  529  1,008  207  57  72 
Goodwill and other intangible assets 7,453  7,683  7,755  4,017  2,847  2,827 

Source: Based on data from FedEx Corp. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Goodwill Carrying amount as of the balance sheet date, which is the cumulative amount paid and (if applicable) the fair value of any noncontrolling interest in the acquiree, adjusted for any amortization recognized prior to the adoption of any changes in generally accepted accounting principles (as applicable) and for any impairment charges, in excess of the fair value of net assets acquired in one or more business combination transactions. FedEx Corp.'s goodwill increased from 2016 to 2017 but then slightly declined from 2017 to 2018.
Other intangible assets, net book value Sum of the carrying amounts of all intangible assets, excluding goodwill, as of the balance sheet date, net of accumulated amortization and impairment charges. FedEx Corp.'s other intangible assets, net book value declined from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.
Goodwill and other intangible assets Sum of the carrying amounts of all intangible assets, including goodwill, as of the balance sheet date, net of accumulated amortization and impairment charges. FedEx Corp.'s goodwill and other intangible assets declined from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Analyst Adjustments: Removal of Goodwill

FedEx Corp., adjustments to financial data

USD $ in millions

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May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014 May 31, 2013
Adjustment to Total Assets
Total assets (as reported) 52,330  48,552  46,064  37,069  33,070  33,567 
Less: Goodwill 6,973  7,154  6,747  3,810  2,790  2,755 
Total assets (adjusted) 45,357  41,398  39,317  33,259  30,280  30,812 
Adjustment to Common Stockholders' Investment
Common stockholders' investment (as reported) 19,416  16,073  13,784  14,993  15,277  17,398 
Less: Goodwill 6,973  7,154  6,747  3,810  2,790  2,755 
Common stockholders' investment (adjusted) 12,443  8,919  7,037  11,183  12,487  14,643 
Adjustment to Net Income
Net income (as reported) 4,572  2,997  1,820  1,050  2,097  1,561 
Add: Goodwill impairment charges 374 
Net income (adjusted) 4,946  2,997  1,820  1,050  2,097  1,561 

Adjusted Ratios: Removal of Goodwill (Summary)

FedEx Corp., adjusted ratios

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May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014 May 31, 2013
Net Profit Margin
Reported net profit margin 6.99% 4.97% 3.61% 2.21% 4.60% 3.52%
Adjusted net profit margin 7.56% 4.97% 3.61% 2.21% 4.60% 3.52%
Total Asset Turnover
Reported total asset turnover 1.25 1.24 1.09 1.28 1.38 1.32
Adjusted total asset turnover 1.44 1.46 1.28 1.43 1.50 1.44
Financial Leverage
Reported financial leverage 2.70 3.02 3.34 2.47 2.16 1.93
Adjusted financial leverage 3.65 4.64 5.59 2.97 2.42 2.10
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE 23.55% 18.65% 13.20% 7.00% 13.73% 8.97%
Adjusted ROE 39.75% 33.60% 25.86% 9.39% 16.79% 10.66%
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA 8.74% 6.17% 3.95% 2.83% 6.34% 4.65%
Adjusted ROA 10.90% 7.24% 4.63% 3.16% 6.93% 5.07%
Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by revenue. FedEx Corp.'s adjusted net profit margin improved from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. FedEx Corp.'s adjusted total asset turnover improved from 2016 to 2017 but then slightly deteriorated from 2017 to 2018.
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
FedEx Corp.'s adjusted financial leverage declined from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. FedEx Corp.'s adjusted ROE improved from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. FedEx Corp.'s adjusted ROA improved from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Adjusted Net Profit Margin

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May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014 May 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income (USD $ in millions) 4,572  2,997  1,820  1,050  2,097  1,561 
Revenues (USD $ in millions) 65,450  60,319  50,365  47,453  45,567  44,287 
Net profit margin1 6.99% 4.97% 3.61% 2.21% 4.60% 3.52%
Adjusted for Goodwill
Adjusted net income (USD $ in millions) 4,946  2,997  1,820  1,050  2,097  1,561 
Revenues (USD $ in millions) 65,450  60,319  50,365  47,453  45,567  44,287 
Adjusted net profit margin2 7.56% 4.97% 3.61% 2.21% 4.60% 3.52%

2018 Calculations

1 Net profit margin = 100 × Net income ÷ Revenues
= 100 × 4,572 ÷ 65,450 = 6.99%

2 Adjusted net profit margin = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Revenues
= 100 × 4,946 ÷ 65,450 = 7.56%

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by revenue. FedEx Corp.'s adjusted net profit margin improved from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Adjusted Total Asset Turnover

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May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014 May 31, 2013
As Reported
Revenues (USD $ in millions) 65,450  60,319  50,365  47,453  45,567  44,287 
Total assets (USD $ in millions) 52,330  48,552  46,064  37,069  33,070  33,567 
Total asset turnover1 1.25 1.24 1.09 1.28 1.38 1.32
Adjusted for Goodwill
Revenues (USD $ in millions) 65,450  60,319  50,365  47,453  45,567  44,287 
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions) 45,357  41,398  39,317  33,259  30,280  30,812 
Adjusted total asset turnover2 1.44 1.46 1.28 1.43 1.50 1.44

2018 Calculations

1 Total asset turnover = Revenues ÷ Total assets
= 65,450 ÷ 52,330 = 1.25

2 Adjusted total asset turnover = Revenues ÷ Adjusted total assets
= 65,450 ÷ 45,357 = 1.44

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. FedEx Corp.'s adjusted total asset turnover improved from 2016 to 2017 but then slightly deteriorated from 2017 to 2018.

Adjusted Financial Leverage

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May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014 May 31, 2013
As Reported
Total assets (USD $ in millions) 52,330  48,552  46,064  37,069  33,070  33,567 
Common stockholders' investment (USD $ in millions) 19,416  16,073  13,784  14,993  15,277  17,398 
Financial leverage1 2.70 3.02 3.34 2.47 2.16 1.93
Adjusted for Goodwill
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions) 45,357  41,398  39,317  33,259  30,280  30,812 
Adjusted common stockholders' investment (USD $ in millions) 12,443  8,919  7,037  11,183  12,487  14,643 
Adjusted financial leverage2 3.65 4.64 5.59 2.97 2.42 2.10

2018 Calculations

1 Financial leverage = Total assets ÷ Common stockholders' investment
= 52,330 ÷ 19,416 = 2.70

2 Adjusted financial leverage = Adjusted total assets ÷ Adjusted common stockholders' investment
= 45,357 ÷ 12,443 = 3.65

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
FedEx Corp.'s adjusted financial leverage declined from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

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May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014 May 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income (USD $ in millions) 4,572  2,997  1,820  1,050  2,097  1,561 
Common stockholders' investment (USD $ in millions) 19,416  16,073  13,784  14,993  15,277  17,398 
ROE1 23.55% 18.65% 13.20% 7.00% 13.73% 8.97%
Adjusted for Goodwill
Adjusted net income (USD $ in millions) 4,946  2,997  1,820  1,050  2,097  1,561 
Adjusted common stockholders' investment (USD $ in millions) 12,443  8,919  7,037  11,183  12,487  14,643 
Adjusted ROE2 39.75% 33.60% 25.86% 9.39% 16.79% 10.66%

2018 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net income ÷ Common stockholders' investment
= 100 × 4,572 ÷ 19,416 = 23.55%

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Adjusted common stockholders' investment
= 100 × 4,946 ÷ 12,443 = 40%

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. FedEx Corp.'s adjusted ROE improved from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
May 31, 2018 May 31, 2017 May 31, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 31, 2014 May 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income (USD $ in millions) 4,572  2,997  1,820  1,050  2,097  1,561 
Total assets (USD $ in millions) 52,330  48,552  46,064  37,069  33,070  33,567 
ROA1 8.74% 6.17% 3.95% 2.83% 6.34% 4.65%
Adjusted for Goodwill
Adjusted net income (USD $ in millions) 4,946  2,997  1,820  1,050  2,097  1,561 
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions) 45,357  41,398  39,317  33,259  30,280  30,812 
Adjusted ROA2 10.90% 7.24% 4.63% 3.16% 6.93% 5.07%

2018 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income ÷ Total assets
= 100 × 4,572 ÷ 52,330 = 8.74%

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Adjusted total assets
= 100 × 4,946 ÷ 45,357 = 10.90%

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. FedEx Corp.'s adjusted ROA improved from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.