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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

United Parcel Service Inc. (UPS)


Analysis of Goodwill and Intangible Assets

Difficulty: Advanced


Goodwill and Intangible Assets Accounting Policy

Costs of purchased businesses in excess of net identifiable assets acquired (goodwill), and indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment at least annually, unless changes in circumstances indicate an impairment may have occurred sooner. UPS is required to test goodwill on a “reporting unit” basis. A reporting unit is the operating segment unless, for businesses within that operating segment, discrete financial information is prepared and regularly reviewed by management, in which case such a component business is the reporting unit.

In assessing goodwill for impairment, UPS initially evaluates qualitative factors to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. UPS considers several factors, including macroeconomic conditions, industry and market conditions, overall financial performance of the reporting unit, changes in management, strategy or customers and relevant reporting unit-specific events such as a change in the carrying amount of net assets, a more likely than not expectation of selling or disposing all, or a portion, of a reporting unit, and the testing for recoverability of a significant asset group within a reporting unit. If this qualitative assessment results in a conclusion that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds the carrying value, then no further testing is performed for that reporting unit.

If the qualitative assessment is not conclusive and it is necessary to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit, then UPS utilizes a two-step process to test goodwill for impairment. First, a comparison of the fair value of the applicable reporting unit with the aggregate carrying value, including goodwill, is performed. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its calculated fair value, then the second step is performed, and an impairment charge is recognized for the amount, if any, by which the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its implied fair value. UPS primarily determines the fair value of the reporting units using a discounted cash flow model and supplement this with observable valuation multiples for comparable companies, as appropriate.

A trade name with a carrying value of $200 million and licenses with a carrying value of $5 million as of December 31, 2018 are considered to be indefinite-lived intangibles, and therefore are not amortized. Indefinite-lived intangible assets are reviewed for impairment at least annually. UPS determined that the income approach, specifically the relief from royalty method, is the most appropriate valuation method to estimate the fair value of the trade name. The estimated fair value of the trade name is compared to the carrying value of the asset. If the carrying value of the trade name exceeds its estimated fair value, an impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value.

Finite-lived intangible assets, including trademarks, licenses, patents, customer lists, non-compete agreements and franchise rights are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from 2 to 22 years. Capitalized software is generally amortized over 7 years.

Source: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-21).


Goodwill and Intangible Assets Disclosure

United Parcel Service Inc., balance sheet: goodwill and intangible assets

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Capitalized software hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Licenses hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Franchise rights hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Customer relationships hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Trade name hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Trademarks, patents, and other hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Intangible assets, gross carrying amount hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Accumulated amortization hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Intangible assets, net carrying value hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Goodwill hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Goodwill and intangible assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-27).

Item Description The company
Intangible assets, net carrying value Sum of the carrying amounts of all intangible assets, excluding goodwill, as of the balance sheet date, net of accumulated amortization and impairment charges. United Parcel Service Inc.’s intangible assets, net carrying value increased from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.
Goodwill Amount after accumulated impairment loss of an asset representing future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in a business combination that are not individually identified and separately recognized. United Parcel Service Inc.’s goodwill increased from 2016 to 2017 but then slightly declined from 2017 to 2018 not reaching 2016 level.
Goodwill and intangible assets Sum of the carrying amounts of all intangible assets, including goodwill, as of the balance sheet date, net of accumulated amortization and impairment charges. United Parcel Service Inc.’s goodwill and intangible assets increased from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Analyst Adjustments: Removal of Goodwill

United Parcel Service Inc., adjustments to financial data

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Adjustment to Total Assets
Total assets (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Goodwill hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Equity For Controlling Interests
Equity for controlling interests (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Goodwill hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Equity for controlling interests (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-27).


United Parcel Service Inc., Financial Data: Reported vs. Adjusted


Adjusted Ratios: Removal of Goodwill (Summary)

United Parcel Service Inc., adjusted ratios

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Total Asset Turnover
Reported total asset turnover hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total asset turnover hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Financial Leverage
Reported financial leverage hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted financial leverage hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted ROE hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted ROA hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-27).

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. United Parcel Service Inc.’s adjusted total asset turnover deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by adjusted shareholders’ equity.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by adjusted total assets. United Parcel Service Inc.’s adjusted ROA improved from 2016 to 2017 but then slightly deteriorated from 2017 to 2018 not reaching 2016 level.

United Parcel Service Inc., Ratios: Reported vs. Adjusted


Adjusted Total Asset Turnover

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Revenue hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Total asset turnover1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Goodwill
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Revenue hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted total asset turnover2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-27).

2018 Calculations

1 Total asset turnover = Revenue ÷ Total assets
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted total asset turnover = Revenue ÷ Adjusted total assets
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. United Parcel Service Inc.’s adjusted total asset turnover deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Adjusted Financial Leverage

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Equity for controlling interests hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Financial leverage1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Goodwill
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Adjusted total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted equity for controlling interests hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted financial leverage2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-27).

2018 Calculations

1 Financial leverage = Total assets ÷ Equity for controlling interests
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted financial leverage = Adjusted total assets ÷ Adjusted equity for controlling interests
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.

Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Equity for controlling interests hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
ROE1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Goodwill
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted equity for controlling interests hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted ROE2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-27).

2018 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net income ÷ Equity for controlling interests
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Net income ÷ Adjusted equity for controlling interests
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by adjusted shareholders’ equity.

Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
ROA1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Goodwill
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted ROA2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-27).

2018 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income ÷ Total assets
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Net income ÷ Adjusted total assets
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by adjusted total assets. United Parcel Service Inc.’s adjusted ROA improved from 2016 to 2017 but then slightly deteriorated from 2017 to 2018 not reaching 2016 level.