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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

eBay Inc. (NASDAQ:EBAY)


Economic Value Added (EVA)

Advanced level


Economic Profit

eBay Inc., economic profit calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)1
Cost of capital2
Invested capital3
 
Economic profit4

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-01-30), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-05), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-06), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-01), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-06).

1 NOPAT. See details »

2 Cost of capital. See details »

3 Invested capital. See details »

4 2018 Calculation
Economic profit = NOPAT – Cost of capital × Invested capital
= × =

Item Description The company
Economic profit Economic profit is a measure of corporate performance computed by taking the spread between the return on invested capital and the cost of capital, and multiplying by the invested capital. eBay Inc.’s economic profit decreased from 2016 to 2017 but then increased from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.

Net Operating Profit after Taxes (NOPAT)

eBay Inc., NOPAT calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Net income (loss)
Deferred income tax expense (benefit)1
Increase (decrease) in allowance for doubtful accounts and authorized credits2
Increase (decrease) in deferred revenue3
Increase (decrease) in restructuring reserve4
Increase (decrease) in equity equivalents5
Interest expense
Interest expense, operating lease liability6
Adjusted interest expense
Tax benefit of interest expense7
Adjusted interest expense, after taxes8
(Gain) loss on marketable securities
Interest income
Investment income, before taxes
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income9
Investment income, after taxes10
(Income) loss from discontinued operations, net of tax11
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-01-30), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-05), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-06), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-01), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-06).

1 Elimination of deferred tax expense. See details »

2 Addition of increase (decrease) in allowance for doubtful accounts and authorized credits.

3 Addition of increase (decrease) in deferred revenue.

4 Addition of increase (decrease) in restructuring reserve.

5 Addition of increase (decrease) in equity equivalents to net income (loss).

6 2018 Calculation
Interest expense on capitalized operating leases = Operating lease liability × Discount rate
= × =

7 2018 Calculation
Tax benefit of interest expense = Adjusted interest expense × Statutory income tax rate
= × 21.00% =

8 Addition of after taxes interest expense to net income (loss).

9 2018 Calculation
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income = Investment income, before tax × Statutory income tax rate
= × 21.00% =

10 Elimination of after taxes investment income.

11 Elimination of discontinued operations.

Item Description The company
NOPAT Net operating profit after taxes is income from operations, but after removement of taxes calculated on cash basis that are relevant to operating income. eBay Inc.’s NOPAT decreased from 2016 to 2017 but then increased from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.

Cash Operating Taxes

eBay Inc., cash operating taxes calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Provision (benefit) for income taxes
Less: Deferred income tax expense (benefit)
Add: Tax savings from interest expense
Less: Tax imposed on investment income
Cash operating taxes

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-01-30), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-05), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-06), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-01), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-06).

Item Description The company
Cash operating taxes Cash operating taxes are estimated by adjusting income tax expense for changes in deferred taxes and tax benefit from the interest deduction. eBay Inc.’s cash operating taxes increased from 2016 to 2017 but then decreased significantly from 2017 to 2018.

Invested Capital

eBay Inc., invested capital calculation (financing approach)

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Short-term debt
Long-term debt
Operating lease liability1
Total reported debt & leases
Stockholders’ equity
Net deferred tax (assets) liabilities2
Allowance for doubtful accounts and authorized credits3
Deferred revenue4
Restructuring reserve5
Equity equivalents6
Accumulated other comprehensive (income) loss, net of tax7
Adjusted stockholders’ equity
Marketable securities8
Invested capital

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-01-30), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-05), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-06), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-01), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-06).

1 Addition of capitalized operating leases.

2 Elimination of deferred taxes from assets and liabilities. See details »

3 Addition of allowance for doubtful accounts receivable.

4 Addition of deferred revenue.

5 Addition of restructuring reserve.

6 Addition of equity equivalents to stockholders’ equity.

7 Removal of accumulated other comprehensive income.

8 Subtraction of marketable securities.

Item Description The company
Invested capital Capital is an approximation of the economic book value of all cash invested in going-concern business activities. eBay Inc.’s invested capital decreased from 2016 to 2017 but then increased from 2017 to 2018 not reaching 2016 level.

Cost of Capital

eBay Inc., cost of capital calculations

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-01-30).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-05).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-06).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-01).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-06).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »


Economic Spread Ratio

eBay Inc., economic spread ratio calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Economic profit1
Invested capital2
Performance Ratio
Economic spread ratio3

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-01-30), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-05), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-06), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-01), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-06).

1 Economic profit. See details »

2 Invested capital. See details »

3 2018 Calculation
Economic spread ratio = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Invested capital
= 100 × ÷ =

Performance ratio Description The company
Economic spread ratio The ratio of economic profit to invested capital, also equal to the difference between return on invested capital (ROIC) and cost of capital. eBay Inc.’s economic spread ratio deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.

Economic Profit Margin

eBay Inc., economic profit margin calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Economic profit1
Net revenues
Add: Increase (decrease) in deferred revenue
Adjusted net revenues
Performance Ratio
Economic profit margin2

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-01-30), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-05), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-06), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-01), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-06).

1 Economic profit. See details »

2 2018 Calculation
Economic profit margin = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Adjusted net revenues
= 100 × ÷ =

Performance ratio Description The company
Economic profit margin The ratio of economic profit to sales. It is the company’s profit margin covering income efficiency and asset management. Economic profit margin is not biased in favor of capital-intensive business models, because any added capital is a cost to the economic profit margin. eBay Inc.’s economic profit margin deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.