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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc


Economic Value Added (EVA)

Difficulty: Advanced

EVA is registered trademark of Stern Stewart.

Economic value added or economic profit is the difference between revenues and costs,where costs include not only expenses, but also cost of capital.


Economic Profit

Lowe's Cos. Inc., economic profit calculation

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Feb 2, 2018 Feb 3, 2017 Jan 29, 2016 Jan 30, 2015 Jan 31, 2014 Feb 1, 2013
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Cost of capital2 hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Invested capital3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Economic profit4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Source: Based on data from Lowe's Cos. Inc. Annual Reports

2018 Calculations

1 NOPAT. See Details »

2 Cost of capital. See Details »

3 Invested capital. See Details »

4 Economic profit = NOPAT – Cost of capital × Invested capital
= hiddenhidden% × hidden = hidden

Item Description The company
Economic profit Economic profit is a measure of corporate performance computed by taking the spread between the return on invested capital and the cost of capital, and multiplying by the invested capital. Lowe's Cos. Inc.'s economic profit increased from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Net Operating Profit after Taxes (NOPAT)

Lowe's Cos. Inc., NOPAT calculation

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Feb 2, 2018 Feb 3, 2017 Jan 29, 2016 Jan 30, 2015 Jan 31, 2014 Feb 1, 2013
Net earnings hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred income tax expense (benefit)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in deferred revenue2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in reserve for exit activities3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in equity equivalents4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest expense, net of amount capitalized hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest expense, operating lease obligations5 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted interest expense, net of amount capitalized hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax benefit of interest expense, net of amount capitalized6 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted interest expense, net of amount capitalized, after taxes7 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
(Gain) loss on marketable securities hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Investment income, before taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income8 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Investment income, after taxes9 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Source: Based on data from Lowe's Cos. Inc. Annual Reports

2018 Calculations

1 Elimination of deferred tax expense. See Details »

2 Addition of increase (decrease) in deferred revenue.

3 Addition of increase (decrease) in reserve for exit activities.

4 Addition of increase (decrease) in equity equivalents to net earnings.

5 Addition of interest expense on capitalized operating leases. See Details »

6 Tax benefit of interest expense, net of amount capitalized = Adjusted interest expense, net of amount capitalized × Statutory income tax rate
= hidden × 34% = hidden

7 Addition of after taxes interest expense to net earnings.

8 Tax expense (benefit) of investment income = Investment income, before tax × Statutory income tax rate
= hidden × 34% = hidden

9 Elimination of after taxes investment income.

Item Description The company
NOPAT Net operating profit after taxes is income from operations, but after removement of taxes calculated on cash basis that are relevant to operating income. Lowe's Cos. Inc.'s NOPAT increased from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Cash Operating Taxes

Lowe's Cos. Inc., cash operating taxes calculation

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Feb 2, 2018 Feb 3, 2017 Jan 29, 2016 Jan 30, 2015 Jan 31, 2014 Feb 1, 2013
Income tax provision hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Deferred income tax expense (benefit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Add: Tax savings from interest expense, net of amount capitalized hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Tax imposed on investment income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Cash operating taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Source: Based on data from Lowe's Cos. Inc. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Cash operating taxes Cash operating taxes are estimated by adjusting income tax expense for changes in deferred taxes and tax benefit from the interest deduction. Lowe's Cos. Inc.'s cash operating taxes increased from 2016 to 2017 but then slightly declined from 2017 to 2018 not reaching 2016 level.

Invested Capital

Lowe's Cos. Inc., invested capital calculation (financing approach)

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Feb 2, 2018 Feb 3, 2017 Jan 29, 2016 Jan 30, 2015 Jan 31, 2014 Feb 1, 2013
Short-term borrowings hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Current maturities of long-term debt hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Long-term debt, excluding current maturities hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
PV of operating lease payments1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total reported debt & leases hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Shareholders' equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net deferred tax (assets) liabilities2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred revenue3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Reserve for exit activities4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Equity equivalents5 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Accumulated other comprehensive (income) loss, net of tax6 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted shareholders' equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Construction in progress7 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Investments8 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Source: Based on data from Lowe's Cos. Inc. Annual Reports

1 Addition of capitalized operating leases. See Details »

2 Elimination of deferred taxes from assets and liabilities. See Details »

3 Addition of deferred revenue.

4 Addition of reserve for exit activities.

5 Addition of equity equivalents to shareholders' equity.

6 Removal of accumulated other comprehensive income.

7 Subtraction of construction in progress.

8 Subtraction of investments.

Item Description The company
Invested capital Capital is an approximation of the economic book value of all cash invested in going-concern business activities. Lowe's Cos. Inc.'s invested capital increased from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Cost of Capital

Lowe's Cos. Inc., cost of capital calculations

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% = hidden%
Debt, including capitalized lease obligations3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 34%) = hidden%
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 34%) = hidden%
Total: hidden hidden hidden%

Source: Based on data from Lowe's Cos. Inc. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt, including capitalized lease obligations. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% = hidden%
Debt, including capitalized lease obligations3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
Total: hidden hidden hidden%

Source: Based on data from Lowe's Cos. Inc. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt, including capitalized lease obligations. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% = hidden%
Debt, including capitalized lease obligations3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
Total: hidden hidden hidden%

Source: Based on data from Lowe's Cos. Inc. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt, including capitalized lease obligations. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% = hidden%
Debt, including capitalized lease obligations3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
Total: hidden hidden hidden%

Source: Based on data from Lowe's Cos. Inc. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt, including capitalized lease obligations. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% = hidden%
Debt, including capitalized lease obligations3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
Total: hidden hidden hidden%

Source: Based on data from Lowe's Cos. Inc. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt, including capitalized lease obligations. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% = hidden%
Debt, including capitalized lease obligations3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
Total: hidden hidden hidden%

Source: Based on data from Lowe's Cos. Inc. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt, including capitalized lease obligations. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »


Economic Spread

Lowe's Cos. Inc., economic spread calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Feb 2, 2018 Feb 3, 2017 Jan 29, 2016 Jan 30, 2015 Jan 31, 2014 Feb 1, 2013
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Economic profit1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Economic spread3 hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%

Source: Based on data from Lowe's Cos. Inc. Annual Reports

2018 Calculations

1 Economic profit. See Details »

2 Invested capital. See Details »

3 Economic spread = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Invested capital
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden%

Ratio Description The company
Economic spread The ratio of economic profit to invested capital, also equal to the difference between return on invested capital (ROIC) and cost of capital. Lowe's Cos. Inc.'s economic spread improved from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Economic Profit Margin

Lowe's Cos. Inc., economic profit margin calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Feb 2, 2018 Feb 3, 2017 Jan 29, 2016 Jan 30, 2015 Jan 31, 2014 Feb 1, 2013
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Economic profit1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net sales hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in deferred revenue hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Economic profit margin2 hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%

Source: Based on data from Lowe's Cos. Inc. Annual Reports

2018 Calculations

1 Economic profit. See Details »

2 Economic profit margin = 100 × Economic profit ÷ (Net sales + Change in deferred revenue)
= 100 × hidden ÷ (hidden + hidden) = hidden%

Ratio Description The company
Economic profit margin The ratio of economic profit to sales. It is the company's profit margin covering income efficiency and asset management. Economic profit margin is not biased in favor of capital-intensive business models, because any added capital is a cost to the economic profit margin. Lowe's Cos. Inc.'s economic profit margin improved from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.