Stock Analysis on Net

Alphabet Inc. (NASDAQ:GOOG)

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Economic Value Added (EVA)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

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Economic Profit

Alphabet Inc., economic profit calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended: Dec 31, 2021 Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)1
Cost of capital2
Invested capital3
 
Economic profit4

Based on: 10-K (reporting date: 2021-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2020-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2019-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2018-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2017-12-31).

1 NOPAT. See details »

2 Cost of capital. See details »

3 Invested capital. See details »

4 2021 Calculation
Economic profit = NOPAT – Cost of capital × Invested capital
= × =

Item Description The company
Economic profit Economic profit is a measure of corporate performance computed by taking the spread between the return on invested capital and the cost of capital, and multiplying by the invested capital. Alphabet Inc. economic profit increased from 2019 to 2020 and from 2020 to 2021.

Net Operating Profit after Taxes (NOPAT)

Alphabet Inc., NOPAT calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended: Dec 31, 2021 Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017
Net income
Deferred income tax expense (benefit)1
Increase (decrease) in allowance for credit losses on accounts receivable2
Increase (decrease) in deferred revenue3
Increase (decrease) in equity equivalents4
Interest expense
Interest expense, operating lease liability5
Adjusted interest expense
Tax benefit of interest expense6
Adjusted interest expense, after taxes7
(Gain) loss on marketable securities
Interest income
Investment income, before taxes
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income8
Investment income, after taxes9
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)

Based on: 10-K (reporting date: 2021-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2020-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2019-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2018-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2017-12-31).

1 Elimination of deferred tax expense. See details »

2 Addition of increase (decrease) in allowance for credit losses on accounts receivable.

3 Addition of increase (decrease) in deferred revenue.

4 Addition of increase (decrease) in equity equivalents to net income.

5 2021 Calculation
Interest expense on capitalized operating leases = Operating lease liability × Discount rate
= × =

6 2021 Calculation
Tax benefit of interest expense = Adjusted interest expense × Statutory income tax rate
= × 21.00% =

7 Addition of after taxes interest expense to net income.

8 2021 Calculation
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income = Investment income, before tax × Statutory income tax rate
= × 21.00% =

9 Elimination of after taxes investment income.

Item Description The company
NOPAT Net operating profit after taxes is income from operations, but after removement of taxes calculated on cash basis that are relevant to operating income. Alphabet Inc. NOPAT increased from 2019 to 2020 and from 2020 to 2021.

Cash Operating Taxes

Alphabet Inc., cash operating taxes calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended: Dec 31, 2021 Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017
Provision for income taxes
Less: Deferred income tax expense (benefit)
Add: Tax savings from interest expense
Less: Tax imposed on investment income
Cash operating taxes

Based on: 10-K (reporting date: 2021-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2020-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2019-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2018-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2017-12-31).

Item Description The company
Cash operating taxes Cash operating taxes are estimated by adjusting income tax expense for changes in deferred taxes and tax benefit from the interest deduction. Alphabet Inc. cash operating taxes increased from 2019 to 2020 and from 2020 to 2021.

Invested Capital

Alphabet Inc., invested capital calculation (financing approach)

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2021 Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017
Current portion of Notes
Current portion future finance lease payments, net
Long-term debt, excluding current portion
Operating lease liability1
Total reported debt & leases
Stockholders’ equity
Net deferred tax (assets) liabilities2
Allowance for credit losses on accounts receivable3
Deferred revenue4
Equity equivalents5
Accumulated other comprehensive (income) loss, net of tax6
Adjusted stockholders’ equity
Construction in progress7
Marketable securities8
Invested capital

Based on: 10-K (reporting date: 2021-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2020-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2019-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2018-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2017-12-31).

1 Addition of capitalized operating leases.

2 Elimination of deferred taxes from assets and liabilities. See details »

3 Addition of allowance for doubtful accounts receivable.

4 Addition of deferred revenue.

5 Addition of equity equivalents to stockholders’ equity.

6 Removal of accumulated other comprehensive income.

7 Subtraction of construction in progress.

8 Subtraction of marketable securities.

Item Description The company
Invested capital Capital is an approximation of the economic book value of all cash invested in going-concern business activities. Alphabet Inc. invested capital increased from 2019 to 2020 and from 2020 to 2021.

Cost of Capital

Alphabet Inc., cost of capital calculations

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (reporting date: 2021-12-31).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (reporting date: 2020-12-31).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (reporting date: 2019-12-31).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (reporting date: 2018-12-31).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (reporting date: 2017-12-31).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »


Economic Spread Ratio

Alphabet Inc., economic spread ratio calculation, comparison to benchmarks

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2021 Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Economic profit1
Invested capital2
Performance Ratio
Economic spread ratio3
Benchmarks
Economic Spread Ratio, Competitors4
Charter Communications Inc.
Comcast Corp.
Meta Platforms Inc.
Netflix Inc.
Twitter Inc.
Walt Disney Co.

Based on: 10-K (reporting date: 2021-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2020-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2019-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2018-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2017-12-31).

1 Economic profit. See details »

2 Invested capital. See details »

3 2021 Calculation
Economic spread ratio = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Invested capital
= 100 × ÷ =

4 Click competitor name to see calculations.

Performance ratio Description The company
Economic spread ratio The ratio of economic profit to invested capital, also equal to the difference between return on invested capital (ROIC) and cost of capital. Alphabet Inc. economic spread ratio improved from 2019 to 2020 and from 2020 to 2021.

Economic Profit Margin

Alphabet Inc., economic profit margin calculation, comparison to benchmarks

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2021 Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Economic profit1
 
Revenues
Add: Increase (decrease) in deferred revenue
Adjusted revenues
Performance Ratio
Economic profit margin2
Benchmarks
Economic Profit Margin, Competitors3
Charter Communications Inc.
Comcast Corp.
Meta Platforms Inc.
Netflix Inc.
Twitter Inc.
Walt Disney Co.

Based on: 10-K (reporting date: 2021-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2020-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2019-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2018-12-31), 10-K (reporting date: 2017-12-31).

1 Economic profit. See details »

2 2021 Calculation
Economic profit margin = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Adjusted revenues
= 100 × ÷ =

3 Click competitor name to see calculations.

Performance ratio Description The company
Economic profit margin The ratio of economic profit to sales. It is the company profit margin covering income efficiency and asset management. Economic profit margin is not biased in favor of capital-intensive business models, because any added capital is a cost to the economic profit margin. Alphabet Inc. economic profit margin improved from 2019 to 2020 and from 2020 to 2021.