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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc


Analysis of Income Taxes

Difficulty: Advanced


Income Tax Accounting Policy

Alphabet accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method, under which Alphabet recognizes the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year and deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the financial statements or tax returns. Alphabet measures current and deferred tax assets and liabilities based on provisions of enacted tax law. Alphabet evaluates the realization of the deferred tax assets based on all available evidence and establish a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that they will not be realized.

Alphabet recognizes the financial statement effects of a tax position when it is more likely than not that, based on technical merits, the position will be sustained upon examination. The tax benefits of the position recognized in the financial statements are then measured based on the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50% likely to be realized upon settlement with a taxing authority. In addition, Alphabet recognizes interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits as a component of the income tax provision.

Source: Alphabet Inc., Annual Report


Income Tax Expense (Benefit)

Alphabet Inc., income tax expense (benefit), continuing operations

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Federal and state hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Foreign hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Current hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Federal and state hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Foreign hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Provision for income taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Source: Based on data from Alphabet Inc. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Current The component of income tax expense for the period representing amounts of income taxes paid or payable (or refundable) for the period for all income tax obligations as determined by applying the provisions of relevant enacted tax laws to relevant amounts of taxable income (loss) from continuing operations. Alphabet Inc.'s current increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Deferred The component of income tax expense for the period representing the net change in the entity's deferred tax assets and liabilities pertaining to continuing operations. Alphabet Inc.'s deferred increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Provision for income taxes The sum of the current income tax expense (benefit) and the deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to pretax income (loss) from continuing operations; income tax expense (benefit) may include interest and penalties on tax uncertainties based on the entity's accounting policy. Alphabet Inc.'s provision for income taxes increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Effective Income Tax Rate (EITR)

Alphabet Inc., effective income tax rate (EITR) reconciliation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
U.S. federal statutory tax rate hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Foreign income taxed at different rates hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
One-time transition tax hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Deferred tax effects hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Impact of the Tax Act hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Federal research credit hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Stock-based compensation expense hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
European Commission Fine hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Other adjustments hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Effective tax rate hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%

Source: Based on data from Alphabet Inc. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Effective tax rate A ratio calculated by dividing the reported amount of income tax expense attributable to continuing operations for the period by GAAP-basis pretax income from continuing operations. Alphabet Inc.'s effective tax rate increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Components of Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities

Alphabet Inc., components of deferred tax assets and liabilities

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Stock-based compensation expense hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Accrued employee benefits hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Accruals and reserves not currently deductible hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax credit hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Basis difference in investment of Arris hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Prepaid cost sharing hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net Operating Losses hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Other hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred tax assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Valuation allowance hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred tax assets net of valuation allowance hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Depreciation and amortization hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Identified intangibles hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Renewable energy investments hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Foreign earnings hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Other hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred tax liabilities hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net deferred tax assets (liabilities) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Source: Based on data from Alphabet Inc. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Deferred tax assets The sum of the tax effects as of the balance sheet date of the amounts of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws (before the valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such sum amount to net realizable value). Includes any tax benefit realized in deferred tax assets for significant impacts of tax planning strategies. Alphabet Inc.'s deferred tax assets increased from 2015 to 2016 but then declined significantly from 2016 to 2017.
Deferred tax assets net of valuation allowance The aggregate tax effects as of the balance sheet date of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; net of deducting the allocated valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. Alphabet Inc.'s deferred tax assets net of valuation allowance increased from 2015 to 2016 but then declined significantly from 2016 to 2017.
Net deferred tax assets (liabilities) For entities that net deferred tax assets and tax liabilities, represents the unclassified net amount of deferred tax assets and liabilities as of the balance sheet date, which result from applying the applicable enacted tax rate to net temporary differences and carryforwards pertaining to assets or liabilities. A temporary difference is a difference between the tax basis of an asset or liability and its carrying amount in the financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles that will reverse in ensuing periods. Alphabet Inc.'s net deferred tax assets (liabilities) increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities, Classification

Alphabet Inc., deferred tax assets and liabilities, classification

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Deferred tax assets, current hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred tax assets, non-current hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred tax liabilities, non-current hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Source: Based on data from Alphabet Inc. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Deferred tax assets, current The current portion of the aggregate tax effects as of the balance sheet date of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; after deducting the allocated valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. An unrecognized tax benefit that is directly related to a position taken in a tax year that results in a net operating loss carryforward should be presented as a reduction of the related deferred tax asset.
Deferred tax assets, non-current The noncurrent portion as of the balance sheet date of the aggregate carrying amount of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; after the valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. Alphabet Inc.'s deferred tax assets, non-current increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Deferred tax liabilities, non-current Represents the noncurrent portion of deferred tax liabilities, which result from applying the applicable tax rate to net taxable temporary differences pertaining to each jurisdiction to which the entity is obligated to pay income tax. A noncurrent taxable temporary difference is a difference between the tax basis and the carrying amount of a noncurrent asset or liability in the financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. In a classified statement of financial position, an enterprise shall separate deferred tax liabilities and assets into a current amount and a noncurrent amount. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. Alphabet Inc.'s deferred tax liabilities, non-current increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Analyst Adjustments: Removal of Deferred Taxes

Alphabet Inc., adjustments to financial data

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Adjustment to Current Assets
Current assets (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Current deferred tax assets, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Current assets (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Total Assets
Total assets (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Current deferred tax assets, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax assets, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Total Liabilities
Total liabilities (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax liabilities, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total liabilities (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Stockholders' Equity
Stockholders' equity (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Net deferred tax assets (liabilities) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Stockholders' equity (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Net Income
Net income (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Add: Deferred income tax expense (benefit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net income (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Adjusted Ratios: Removal of Deferred Taxes (Summary)

Alphabet Inc., adjusted ratios

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Current Ratio
Reported current ratio hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted current ratio hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net Profit Margin
Reported net profit margin hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Adjusted net profit margin hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Total Asset Turnover
Reported total asset turnover hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total asset turnover hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Financial Leverage
Reported financial leverage hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted financial leverage hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Adjusted ROE hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Adjusted ROA hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Ratio Description The company
Adjusted current ratio A liquidity ratio calculated as adjusted current assets divided by adjusted current liabilities. Alphabet Inc.'s adjusted current ratio improved from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 not reaching 2015 level.
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. Alphabet Inc.'s adjusted net profit margin deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. Alphabet Inc.'s adjusted total asset turnover improved from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Alphabet Inc.'s adjusted financial leverage declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 exceeding 2015 level.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. Alphabet Inc.'s adjusted ROE improved from 2015 to 2016 but then deteriorated significantly from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. Alphabet Inc.'s adjusted ROA improved from 2015 to 2016 but then deteriorated significantly from 2016 to 2017.

Adjusted Current Ratio

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Current assets (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Current liabilities (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Current ratio1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted current assets (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted current ratio2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

2017 Calculations

1 Current ratio = Current assets ÷ Current liabilities
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted current ratio = Adjusted current assets ÷ Current liabilities
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted current ratio A liquidity ratio calculated as adjusted current assets divided by adjusted current liabilities. Alphabet Inc.'s adjusted current ratio improved from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 not reaching 2015 level.

Adjusted Net Profit Margin

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Revenues (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net profit margin1 hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted net profit margin2 hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%

2017 Calculations

1 Net profit margin = 100 × Net income ÷ Revenues
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden%

2 Adjusted net profit margin = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Revenues
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden%

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. Alphabet Inc.'s adjusted net profit margin deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Adjusted Total Asset Turnover

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Revenues (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total asset turnover1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total asset turnover2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

2017 Calculations

1 Total asset turnover = Revenues ÷ Total assets
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted total asset turnover = Revenues ÷ Adjusted total assets
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. Alphabet Inc.'s adjusted total asset turnover improved from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Adjusted Financial Leverage

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Total assets (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Stockholders' equity (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Financial leverage1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted stockholders' equity (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted financial leverage2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

2017 Calculations

1 Financial leverage = Total assets ÷ Stockholders' equity
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted financial leverage = Adjusted total assets ÷ Adjusted stockholders' equity
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Alphabet Inc.'s adjusted financial leverage declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 exceeding 2015 level.

Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Stockholders' equity (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
ROE1 hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted stockholders' equity (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted ROE2 hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%

2017 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net income ÷ Stockholders' equity
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden%

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Adjusted stockholders' equity
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden%

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. Alphabet Inc.'s adjusted ROE improved from 2015 to 2016 but then deteriorated significantly from 2016 to 2017.

Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
ROA1 hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted ROA2 hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%

2017 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income ÷ Total assets
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden%

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Adjusted total assets
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden%

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. Alphabet Inc.'s adjusted ROA improved from 2015 to 2016 but then deteriorated significantly from 2016 to 2017.