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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc


Economic Value Added (EVA)

Difficulty: Advanced

EVA is registered trademark of Stern Stewart.

Economic value added or economic profit is the difference between revenues and costs,where costs include not only expenses, but also cost of capital.


Economic Profit

Delta Air Lines Inc., economic profit calculation

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Cost of capital2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Economic profit4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-13), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-05), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-11), 10-K (filing date: 2014-02-24).

2017 Calculations

1 NOPAT. See Details »

2 Cost of capital. See Details »

3 Invested capital. See Details »

4 Economic profit = NOPAT – Cost of capital × Invested capital
= hiddenhidden × hidden = hidden

Item Description The company
Economic profit Economic profit is a measure of corporate performance computed by taking the spread between the return on invested capital and the cost of capital, and multiplying by the invested capital. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s economic profit declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Net Operating Profit after Taxes (NOPAT)

Delta Air Lines Inc., NOPAT calculation

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Net income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred income tax expense (benefit)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in allowance for uncollectible accounts2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in frequent flyer deferred revenue3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in restructuring liability4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in equity equivalents5 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest expense, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest expense, operating lease obligations6 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted interest expense, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax benefit of interest expense, net7 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted interest expense, net, after taxes8 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
(Gain) loss on marketable securities hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Investment income, before taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income9 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Investment income, after taxes10 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-13), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-05), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-11), 10-K (filing date: 2014-02-24).

2017 Calculations

1 Elimination of deferred tax expense. See Details »

2 Addition of increase (decrease) in allowance for uncollectible accounts.

3 Addition of increase (decrease) in frequent flyer deferred revenue.

4 Addition of increase (decrease) in restructuring liability.

5 Addition of increase (decrease) in equity equivalents to net income.

6 Addition of interest expense on capitalized operating leases. See Details »

7 Tax benefit of interest expense, net = Adjusted interest expense, net × Statutory income tax rate
= hidden × 35.00% = hidden

8 Addition of after taxes interest expense to net income.

9 Tax expense (benefit) of investment income = Investment income, before tax × Statutory income tax rate
= hidden × 35.00% = hidden

10 Elimination of after taxes investment income.

Item Description The company
NOPAT Net operating profit after taxes is income from operations, but after removement of taxes calculated on cash basis that are relevant to operating income. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s NOPAT declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Cash Operating Taxes

Delta Air Lines Inc., cash operating taxes calculation

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Income tax provision (benefit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Deferred income tax expense (benefit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Add: Tax savings from interest expense, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Tax imposed on investment income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Cash operating taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-13), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-05), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-11), 10-K (filing date: 2014-02-24).

Item Description The company
Cash operating taxes Cash operating taxes are estimated by adjusting income tax expense for changes in deferred taxes and tax benefit from the interest deduction. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s cash operating taxes declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Invested Capital

Delta Air Lines Inc., invested capital calculation (financing approach)

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Current maturities of long-term debt and capital leases hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Long-term debt and capital leases, excluding current maturities hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
PV of operating lease payments1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total reported debt & leases hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Stockholders' equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net deferred tax (assets) liabilities2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Allowance for uncollectible accounts3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Frequent flyer deferred revenue4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Restructuring liability5 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Equity equivalents6 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Accumulated other comprehensive (income) loss, net of tax7 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted stockholders' equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Investments8 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-13), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-05), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-11), 10-K (filing date: 2014-02-24).

1 Addition of capitalized operating leases. See Details »

2 Elimination of deferred taxes from assets and liabilities. See Details »

3 Addition of allowance for doubtful accounts receivable.

4 Addition of frequent flyer deferred revenue.

5 Addition of restructuring liability.

6 Addition of equity equivalents to stockholders' equity.

7 Removal of accumulated other comprehensive income.

8 Subtraction of investments.

Item Description The company
Invested capital Capital is an approximation of the economic book value of all cash invested in going-concern business activities. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s invested capital increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Cost of Capital

Delta Air Lines Inc., cost of capital calculations

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt and capital leases3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-23).

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt and capital leases. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt and capital leases3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-13).

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt and capital leases. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt and capital leases3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-05).

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt and capital leases. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt and capital leases3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-11).

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt and capital leases. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt and capital leases3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2014-02-24).

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt and capital leases. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »


Economic Spread

Delta Air Lines Inc., economic spread calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Economic profit1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Economic spread3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-13), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-05), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-11), 10-K (filing date: 2014-02-24).

2017 Calculations

1 Economic profit. See Details »

2 Invested capital. See Details »

3 Economic spread = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Invested capital
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Economic spread The ratio of economic profit to invested capital, also equal to the difference between return on invested capital (ROIC) and cost of capital. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s economic spread deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Economic Profit Margin

Delta Air Lines Inc., economic profit margin calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Economic profit1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Operating revenue hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Add: Increase (decrease) in frequent flyer deferred revenue hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted operating revenue hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Economic profit margin2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-13), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-05), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-11), 10-K (filing date: 2014-02-24).

2017 Calculations

1 Economic profit. See Details »

2 Economic profit margin = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Adjusted operating revenue
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Economic profit margin The ratio of economic profit to sales. It is the company's profit margin covering income efficiency and asset management. Economic profit margin is not biased in favor of capital-intensive business models, because any added capital is a cost to the economic profit margin. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s economic profit margin deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.