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Income Tax Accounting Policy

Delta accounts for deferred income taxes under the liability method. Delta recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities based on the tax effects of temporary differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities, as measured by current enacted tax rates. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recorded net as noncurrent deferred income taxes.

A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce deferred tax assets when necessary. Delta periodically assesses whether it is more likely than not that Delta will generate sufficient taxable income to realize the deferred income tax assets. Delta establishes valuation allowances if it is not likely Delta will realize the deferred income tax assets. In making this determination, Delta considers all available positive and negative evidence and makes certain assumptions. Delta considers, among other things, projected future taxable income, scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, the overall business environment, the historical financial results and tax planning strategies.

Source: Delta Air Lines Inc., Annual Report

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Income Tax Expense (Benefit)

Delta Air Lines Inc., income tax expense (benefit), continuing operations

USD $ in millions

 
12 months ended Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Federal
State and local
International
Current tax provision (benefit)
Federal
State and local
Deferred tax provision (benefit)
Income tax provision (benefit)

Source: Based on data from Delta Air Lines Inc. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Current tax provision (benefit) The component of income tax expense for the period representing amounts of income taxes paid or payable (or refundable) for the period for all income tax obligations as determined by applying the provisions of relevant enacted tax laws to relevant amounts of taxable income (loss) from continuing operations. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s current tax provision (benefit) declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 exceeding 2015 level.
Deferred tax provision (benefit) The component of income tax expense for the period representing the net change in the entity's deferred tax assets and liabilities pertaining to continuing operations. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s deferred tax provision (benefit) declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Income tax provision (benefit) The sum of the current income tax expense (benefit) and the deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to pretax income (loss) from continuing operations; income tax expense (benefit) may include interest and penalties on tax uncertainties based on the entity's accounting policy. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s income tax provision (benefit) declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Effective Income Tax Rate (EITR)

Delta Air Lines Inc., effective income tax rate (EITR) reconciliation

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
U.S. federal statutory income tax rate % % % % %
State taxes, net of federal benefit % % % % %
Decrease in valuation allowance % % % % %
Foreign tax rate differential % % % % %
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act adjustment % % % % %
Income tax allocation % % % % %
Other % % % % %
Effective income tax rate % % % % %

Source: Based on data from Delta Air Lines Inc. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Effective income tax rate A ratio calculated by dividing the reported amount of income tax expense attributable to continuing operations for the period by GAAP-basis pretax income from continuing operations. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s effective income tax rate declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 exceeding 2015 level.

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Components of Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities

Delta Air Lines Inc., components of deferred tax assets and liabilities

USD $ in millions

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Net operating loss carryforwards
Pension, postretirement and other benefits
Alternative minimum tax credit carryforward
Deferred revenue
Other
Deferred tax assets, gross
Valuation allowance
Deferred tax assets
Depreciation
Intangible assets
Other
Deferred tax liabilities
Net deferred tax assets (liabilities)

Source: Based on data from Delta Air Lines Inc. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Deferred tax assets, gross The sum of the tax effects as of the balance sheet date of the amounts of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws (before the valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such sum amount to net realizable value). Includes any tax benefit realized in deferred tax assets for significant impacts of tax planning strategies. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s deferred tax assets, gross declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Deferred tax assets The aggregate tax effects as of the balance sheet date of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; net of deducting the allocated valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s deferred tax assets declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Net deferred tax assets (liabilities) For entities that net deferred tax assets and tax liabilities, represents the unclassified net amount of deferred tax assets and liabilities as of the balance sheet date, which result from applying the applicable enacted tax rate to net temporary differences and carryforwards pertaining to assets or liabilities. A temporary difference is a difference between the tax basis of an asset or liability and its carrying amount in the financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles that will reverse in ensuing periods. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s net deferred tax assets (liabilities) declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities, Classification

Delta Air Lines Inc., deferred tax assets and liabilities, classification

USD $ in millions

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Current deferred tax assets, net
Noncurrent deferred tax assets, net

Source: Based on data from Delta Air Lines Inc. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Current deferred tax assets, net The current portion of the aggregate tax effects as of the balance sheet date of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; after deducting the allocated valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. An unrecognized tax benefit that is directly related to a position taken in a tax year that results in a net operating loss carryforward should be presented as a reduction of the related deferred tax asset.
Noncurrent deferred tax assets, net The noncurrent portion as of the balance sheet date of the aggregate carrying amount of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; after the valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s noncurrent deferred tax assets, net declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Analyst Adjustments: Removal of Deferred Taxes

Delta Air Lines Inc., adjustments to financial data

USD $ in millions

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Adjustment to Current Assets
Current assets (as reported)
Less: Current deferred tax assets, net
Current assets (adjusted)
Adjustment to Total Assets
Total assets (as reported)
Less: Current deferred tax assets, net
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax assets, net
Total assets (adjusted)
Adjustment to Stockholders' Equity
Stockholders' equity (as reported)
Less: Net deferred tax assets (liabilities)
Stockholders' equity (adjusted)
Adjustment to Net Income
Net income (as reported)
Add: Deferred income tax expense (benefit)
Net income (adjusted)

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Adjusted Ratios: Removal of Deferred Taxes (Summary)

Delta Air Lines Inc., adjusted ratios

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Current Ratio
Reported current ratio
Adjusted current ratio
Net Profit Margin
Reported net profit margin % % % % %
Adjusted net profit margin % % % % %
Total Asset Turnover
Reported total asset turnover
Adjusted total asset turnover
Financial Leverage
Reported financial leverage
Adjusted financial leverage
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE % % % % %
Adjusted ROE % % % % %
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA % % % % %
Adjusted ROA % % % % %
Ratio Description The company
Adjusted current ratio A liquidity ratio calculated as adjusted current assets divided by adjusted current liabilities. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s adjusted current ratio deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s adjusted net profit margin deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s adjusted total asset turnover deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Delta Air Lines Inc.'s adjusted financial leverage declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s adjusted ROE deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Current Ratio

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Current assets (USD $ in millions)
Current liabilities (USD $ in millions)
Current ratio1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted current assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted current ratio2

2017 Calculations

1 Current ratio = Current assets ÷ Current liabilities
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted current ratio = Adjusted current assets ÷ Current liabilities
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted current ratio A liquidity ratio calculated as adjusted current assets divided by adjusted current liabilities. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s adjusted current ratio deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Net Profit Margin

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income (USD $ in millions)
Operating revenue (USD $ in millions)
Net profit margin1 % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted net profit margin2 % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 Net profit margin = 100 × Net income ÷ Operating revenue
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted net profit margin = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Operating revenue
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s adjusted net profit margin deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Total Asset Turnover

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Operating revenue (USD $ in millions)
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
Total asset turnover1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total asset turnover2

2017 Calculations

1 Total asset turnover = Operating revenue ÷ Total assets
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted total asset turnover = Operating revenue ÷ Adjusted total assets
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s adjusted total asset turnover deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Financial Leverage

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
Stockholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Financial leverage1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted stockholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted financial leverage2

2017 Calculations

1 Financial leverage = Total assets ÷ Stockholders' equity
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted financial leverage = Adjusted total assets ÷ Adjusted stockholders' equity
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Delta Air Lines Inc.'s adjusted financial leverage declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income (USD $ in millions)
Stockholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
ROE1 % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted stockholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted ROE2 % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net income ÷ Stockholders' equity
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Adjusted stockholders' equity
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s adjusted ROE deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income (USD $ in millions)
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
ROA1 % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted ROA2 % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income ÷ Total assets
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Adjusted total assets
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. Delta Air Lines Inc.'s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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