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Income Tax Accounting Policy

The provision for income taxes is computed using the asset and liability method, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and for operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the currently enacted tax rates that apply to taxable income in effect for the years in which those tax assets and liabilities are expected to be realized or settled. Apple records a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that is believed more likely than not to be realized.

Apple recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such positions are then measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement.

Source: Apple Inc., Annual Report

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Income Tax Expense (Benefit)

Apple Inc., income tax expense (benefit), continuing operations

USD $ in millions

 
12 months ended Sep 30, 2017 Sep 24, 2016 Sep 26, 2015 Sep 27, 2014 Sep 28, 2013 Sep 29, 2012
Federal
State
Foreign
Current
Federal
State
Foreign
Deferred
Provision for income taxes

Source: Based on data from Apple Inc. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Current The component of income tax expense for the period representing amounts of income taxes paid or payable (or refundable) for the period for all income tax obligations as determined by applying the provisions of relevant enacted tax laws to relevant amounts of taxable income (loss) from continuing operations. Apple Inc.'s current declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Deferred The component of income tax expense for the period representing the net change in the entity's deferred tax assets and liabilities pertaining to continuing operations. Apple Inc.'s deferred increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Provision for income taxes The sum of the current income tax expense (benefit) and the deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to pretax income (loss) from continuing operations; income tax expense (benefit) may include interest and penalties on tax uncertainties based on the entity's accounting policy. Apple Inc.'s provision for income taxes declined from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly increased from 2016 to 2017.

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Effective Income Tax Rate (EITR)

Apple Inc., effective income tax rate (EITR) reconciliation

 
Sep 30, 2017 Sep 24, 2016 Sep 26, 2015 Sep 27, 2014 Sep 28, 2013 Sep 29, 2012
Statutory federal income tax rate % % % % % %
Effective tax rate % % % % % %

Source: Based on data from Apple Inc. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Effective tax rate A ratio calculated by dividing the reported amount of income tax expense attributable to continuing operations for the period by GAAP-basis pretax income from continuing operations. Apple Inc.'s effective tax rate declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Components of Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities

Apple Inc., components of deferred tax assets and liabilities

USD $ in millions

 
Sep 30, 2017 Sep 24, 2016 Sep 26, 2015 Sep 27, 2014 Sep 28, 2013 Sep 29, 2012
Accrued liabilities and other reserves
Basis of capital assets
Deferred revenue
Deferred cost sharing
Share-based compensation
Unrealized losses
Other
Deferred tax assets
Valuation allowance
Deferred tax assets, net of valuation allowance
Unremitted earnings of foreign subsidiaries
Other
Deferred tax liabilities
Net deferred tax assets (liabilities)

Source: Based on data from Apple Inc. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Deferred tax assets The sum of the tax effects as of the balance sheet date of the amounts of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws (before the valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such sum amount to net realizable value). Includes any tax benefit realized in deferred tax assets for significant impacts of tax planning strategies. Apple Inc.'s deferred tax assets declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Deferred tax assets, net of valuation allowance The aggregate tax effects as of the balance sheet date of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; net of deducting the allocated valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. Apple Inc.'s deferred tax assets, net of valuation allowance declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Net deferred tax assets (liabilities) For entities that net deferred tax assets and tax liabilities, represents the unclassified net amount of deferred tax assets and liabilities as of the balance sheet date, which result from applying the applicable enacted tax rate to net temporary differences and carryforwards pertaining to assets or liabilities. A temporary difference is a difference between the tax basis of an asset or liability and its carrying amount in the financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles that will reverse in ensuing periods. Apple Inc.'s net deferred tax assets (liabilities) declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Analyst Adjustments: Removal of Deferred Taxes

Apple Inc., adjustments to financial data

USD $ in millions

 
Sep 30, 2017 Sep 24, 2016 Sep 26, 2015 Sep 27, 2014 Sep 28, 2013 Sep 29, 2012
Adjustment to Total Liabilities
Total liabilities (as reported)
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax liabilities, net
Total liabilities (adjusted)
Adjustment to Shareholders' Equity
Shareholders' equity (as reported)
Less: Net deferred tax assets (liabilities)
Shareholders' equity (adjusted)
Adjustment to Net Income
Net income (as reported)
Add: Deferred income tax expense (benefit)
Net income (adjusted)

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Adjusted Ratios: Removal of Deferred Taxes (Summary)

Apple Inc., adjusted ratios

 
Sep 30, 2017 Sep 24, 2016 Sep 26, 2015 Sep 27, 2014 Sep 28, 2013 Sep 29, 2012
Net Profit Margin
Reported net profit margin % % % % % %
Adjusted net profit margin % % % % % %
Financial Leverage
Reported financial leverage
Adjusted financial leverage
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE % % % % % %
Adjusted ROE % % % % % %
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA % % % % % %
Adjusted ROA % % % % % %
Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. Apple Inc.'s adjusted net profit margin improved from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Apple Inc.'s adjusted financial leverage increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. Apple Inc.'s adjusted ROE deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. Apple Inc.'s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Net Profit Margin

 
Sep 30, 2017 Sep 24, 2016 Sep 26, 2015 Sep 27, 2014 Sep 28, 2013 Sep 29, 2012
As Reported
Net income (USD $ in millions)
Net sales (USD $ in millions)
Net profit margin1 % % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted net profit margin2 % % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 Net profit margin = 100 × Net income ÷ Net sales
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted net profit margin = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Net sales
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. Apple Inc.'s adjusted net profit margin improved from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Financial Leverage

 
Sep 30, 2017 Sep 24, 2016 Sep 26, 2015 Sep 27, 2014 Sep 28, 2013 Sep 29, 2012
As Reported
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
Shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Financial leverage1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted financial leverage2

2017 Calculations

1 Financial leverage = Total assets ÷ Shareholders' equity
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted financial leverage = Total assets ÷ Adjusted shareholders' equity
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Apple Inc.'s adjusted financial leverage increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

 
Sep 30, 2017 Sep 24, 2016 Sep 26, 2015 Sep 27, 2014 Sep 28, 2013 Sep 29, 2012
As Reported
Net income (USD $ in millions)
Shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
ROE1 % % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted ROE2 % % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net income ÷ Shareholders' equity
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Adjusted shareholders' equity
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. Apple Inc.'s adjusted ROE deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

 
Sep 30, 2017 Sep 24, 2016 Sep 26, 2015 Sep 27, 2014 Sep 28, 2013 Sep 29, 2012
As Reported
Net income (USD $ in millions)
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
ROA1 % % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted ROA2 % % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income ÷ Total assets
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Adjusted net income ÷ Total assets
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. Apple Inc.'s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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