Stock Analysis on Net
Stock Analysis on Net
Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

Merck & Co. Inc. (NYSE:MRK)

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Analysis of Income Taxes

Advanced level

Income Tax Expense (Benefit)

Merck & Co. Inc., income tax expense (benefit), continuing operations

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended: Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016
Federal
Foreign
State
Current provision
Federal
Foreign
State
Deferred provision
Taxes on income

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2021-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28).

Item Description The company
Current provision Amount of current income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to taxable income (loss) from continuing operations. Merck & Co. Inc.’s current provision decreased from 2018 to 2019 but then slightly increased from 2019 to 2020.
Deferred provision Amount of deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to income (loss) from continuing operations. Merck & Co. Inc.’s deferred provision decreased from 2018 to 2019 and from 2019 to 2020.
Taxes on income Amount of current income tax expense (benefit) and deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to continuing operations. Merck & Co. Inc.’s taxes on income decreased from 2018 to 2019 but then slightly increased from 2019 to 2020.

Effective Income Tax Rate (EITR)

Merck & Co. Inc., effective income tax rate (EITR) reconciliation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016
U.S. statutory tax rate
Foreign earnings
GILTI and the foreign-derived intangible income deduction
R&D tax credit
Tax settlements
Acquisition of VelosBio
Restructuring
Acquisition of OncoImmune
State taxes
Acquisition-related costs, including amortization
Valuation allowances
Acquisition of Peloton
Other
Effective tax rate, before Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
Effective tax rate

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2021-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28).

Item Description The company
Effective tax rate, before Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 Percentage of current income tax expense (benefit) and deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to continuing operations. Merck & Co. Inc.’s effective tax rate, before Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 decreased from 2018 to 2019 but then slightly increased from 2019 to 2020.

Components of Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities

Merck & Co. Inc., components of deferred tax assets and liabilities

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016
Product intangibles and licenses
Inventory related
Accelerated depreciation
Pensions and other postretirement benefits
Compensation related
Unrecognized tax benefits
Net operating losses and other tax credit carryforwards
Other
Gross deferred income tax assets
Valuation allowance
Deferred income tax assets
Product intangibles and licenses
Inventory related
Accelerated depreciation
Equity investments
Pensions and other postretirement benefits
Other
Deferred income tax liabilities
Net deferred income taxes

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2021-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28).

Item Description The company
Gross deferred income tax assets Amount before allocation of valuation allowances of deferred tax asset attributable to deductible temporary differences and carryforwards. Merck & Co. Inc.’s gross deferred income tax assets increased from 2018 to 2019 but then decreased significantly from 2019 to 2020.
Deferred income tax assets Amount after allocation of valuation allowances of deferred tax asset attributable to deductible temporary differences and carryforwards. Merck & Co. Inc.’s deferred income tax assets increased from 2018 to 2019 and from 2019 to 2020.
Net deferred income taxes Amount, after allocation of valuation allowances and deferred tax liability, of deferred tax asset attributable to deductible differences and carryforwards, without jurisdictional netting. Merck & Co. Inc.’s net deferred income taxes increased from 2018 to 2019 and from 2019 to 2020.

Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities, Classification

Merck & Co. Inc., deferred tax assets and liabilities, classification

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016
Deferred income tax assets (included in Other assets)
Deferred income tax liabilities

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2021-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28).

Item Description The company
Deferred income tax assets (included in Other assets) Amount, after allocation of valuation allowances and deferred tax liability, of deferred tax asset attributable to deductible differences and carryforwards, with jurisdictional netting and classified as noncurrent. Merck & Co. Inc.’s deferred income tax assets (included in Other assets) increased from 2018 to 2019 and from 2019 to 2020.
Deferred income tax liabilities Amount, after deferred tax asset, of deferred tax liability attributable to taxable differences, with jurisdictional netting and classified as noncurrent. Merck & Co. Inc.’s deferred income tax liabilities decreased from 2018 to 2019 and from 2019 to 2020.

Adjustments to Financial Statements: Removal of Deferred Taxes

Merck & Co. Inc., adjustments to financial statements

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016
Adjustment to Total Assets
Total assets (as reported)
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax assets, net
Total assets (adjusted)
Adjustment to Total Liabilities
Total liabilities (as reported)
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax liabilities, net
Total liabilities (adjusted)
Adjustment to Total Merck & Co., Inc. Stockholders’ Equity
Total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity (as reported)
Less: Net deferred tax assets (liabilities)
Total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity (adjusted)
Adjustment to Net Income Attributable To Merck & Co., Inc.
Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. (as reported)
Add: Deferred income tax expense (benefit)
Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. (adjusted)

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2021-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28).


Merck & Co. Inc., Financial Data: Reported vs. Adjusted


Adjusted Financial Ratios: Removal of Deferred Taxes (Summary)

Merck & Co. Inc., adjusted financial ratios

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016
Net Profit Margin
Reported net profit margin
Adjusted net profit margin
Total Asset Turnover
Reported total asset turnover
Adjusted total asset turnover
Financial Leverage
Reported financial leverage
Adjusted financial leverage
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE
Adjusted ROE
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA
Adjusted ROA

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2021-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28).

Financial ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted net profit margin ratio improved from 2018 to 2019 but then deteriorated significantly from 2019 to 2020.
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted total asset turnover ratio improved from 2018 to 2019 but then slightly deteriorated from 2019 to 2020 not reaching 2018 level.
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted financial leverage ratio increased from 2018 to 2019 and from 2019 to 2020.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders’ equity. Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted ROE improved from 2018 to 2019 but then slightly deteriorated from 2019 to 2020 not reaching 2018 level.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted ROA improved from 2018 to 2019 but then slightly deteriorated from 2019 to 2020 not reaching 2018 level.

Merck & Co. Inc., Financial Ratios: Reported vs. Adjusted


Adjusted Net Profit Margin

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.
Sales
Profitability Ratio
Net profit margin1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Adjusted net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.
Sales
Profitability Ratio
Adjusted net profit margin2

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2021-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28).

2020 Calculations

1 Net profit margin = 100 × Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. ÷ Sales
= 100 × ÷ =

2 Adjusted net profit margin = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. ÷ Sales
= 100 × ÷ =

Profitability ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted net profit margin ratio improved from 2018 to 2019 but then deteriorated significantly from 2019 to 2020.

Adjusted Total Asset Turnover

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Sales
Total assets
Activity Ratio
Total asset turnover1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Sales
Adjusted total assets
Activity Ratio
Adjusted total asset turnover2

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2021-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28).

2020 Calculations

1 Total asset turnover = Sales ÷ Total assets
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted total asset turnover = Sales ÷ Adjusted total assets
= ÷ =

Activity ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted total asset turnover ratio improved from 2018 to 2019 but then slightly deteriorated from 2019 to 2020 not reaching 2018 level.

Adjusted Financial Leverage

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Total assets
Total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity
Solvency Ratio
Financial leverage1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Adjusted total assets
Adjusted total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity
Solvency Ratio
Adjusted financial leverage2

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2021-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28).

2020 Calculations

1 Financial leverage = Total assets ÷ Total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted financial leverage = Adjusted total assets ÷ Adjusted total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity
= ÷ =

Solvency ratio Description The company
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted financial leverage ratio increased from 2018 to 2019 and from 2019 to 2020.

Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.
Total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity
Profitability Ratio
ROE1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Adjusted net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.
Adjusted total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity
Profitability Ratio
Adjusted ROE2

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2021-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28).

2020 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. ÷ Total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity
= 100 × ÷ =

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. ÷ Adjusted total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity
= 100 × ÷ =

Profitability ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders’ equity. Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted ROE improved from 2018 to 2019 but then slightly deteriorated from 2019 to 2020 not reaching 2018 level.

Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.
Total assets
Profitability Ratio
ROA1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Adjusted net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc.
Adjusted total assets
Profitability Ratio
Adjusted ROA2

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2021-02-25), 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28).

2020 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. ÷ Total assets
= 100 × ÷ =

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. ÷ Adjusted total assets
= 100 × ÷ =

Profitability ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted ROA improved from 2018 to 2019 but then slightly deteriorated from 2019 to 2020 not reaching 2018 level.