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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

Merck & Co. Inc. (MRK)


Analysis of Investments

Difficulty: Advanced


Investment Accounting Policy

Investments in marketable debt securities classified as available-for-sale are reported at fair value. Fair values of Merck’s investments in marketable debt securities are determined using quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities or quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities. Changes in fair value that are considered temporary are reported net of tax in Other Comprehensive Income (OCI). Merck considers available evidence in evaluating potential impairments of its investments in marketable debt securities, including the duration and extent to which fair value is less than cost. An other-than-temporary impairment has occurred if Merck does not expect to recover the entire amortized cost basis of the marketable debt security. If Merck does not intend to sell the impaired debt security, and it is not more likely than not it will be required to sell the debt security before the recovery of its amortized cost basis, the amount of the other-than-temporary impairment recognized in earnings, recorded in Other (income) expense, net, is limited to the portion attributed to credit loss. The remaining portion of the other-than-temporary impairment related to other factors is recognized in OCI. Realized gains and losses for debt securities are included in Other (income) expense, net.

Investments in publicly traded equity securities are reported at fair value determined using quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or quoted prices for similar assets or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data. Changes in fair value are included in Other (income) expense, net. Investments in equity securities without readily determinable fair values are recorded at cost, plus or minus subsequent observable price changes in orderly transactions for identical or similar investments, minus impairments. Such adjustments are recognized in Other (income) expense, net. Realized gains and losses for equity securities are included in Other (income) expense, net.

Source: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27).


Adjustment to Net Income (Loss): Mark to Market Available-for-sale Securities

Merck & Co. Inc., adjustment to Net Income Attributable To Merck & Co., Inc.

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Add: Net unrealized gain (loss) on investments, net of reclassifications hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-27).


Adjusted Ratios: Mark to Market Available-for-sale Securities (Summary)

Merck & Co. Inc., adjusted ratios

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Net Profit Margin
Reported net profit margin hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted net profit margin hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted ROE hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted ROA hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-27).

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by revenue. Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted net profit margin deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by shareholders’ equity. Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted ROE deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by total assets. Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.

Merck & Co. Inc., Ratios: Reported vs. Adjusted


Adjusted Net Profit Margin

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Sales hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Net profit margin1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted: Mark to Market Available-for-sale Securities
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Adjusted net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Sales hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted net profit margin2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-27).

2018 Calculations

1 Net profit margin = 100 × Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. ÷ Sales
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted net profit margin = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. ÷ Sales
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by revenue. Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted net profit margin deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.

Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
ROE1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted: Mark to Market Available-for-sale Securities
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Adjusted net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted ROE2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-27).

2018 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. ÷ Total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. ÷ Total Merck & Co., Inc. stockholders’ equity
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by shareholders’ equity. Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted ROE deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.

Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
ROA1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted: Mark to Market Available-for-sale Securities
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Adjusted net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted ROA2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-27), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-27).

2018 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. ÷ Total assets
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to Merck & Co., Inc. ÷ Total assets
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by total assets. Merck & Co. Inc.’s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.