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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

General Mills Inc. (GIS)


Economic Value Added (EVA)

Difficulty: Advanced

EVA is registered trademark of Stern Stewart.

Economic value added or economic profit is the difference between revenues and costs,where costs include not only expenses, but also cost of capital.


Economic Profit

General Mills Inc., economic profit calculation

US$ in thousands

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended May 26, 2019 May 27, 2018 May 28, 2017 May 29, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 25, 2014
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Cost of capital2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
 
Economic profit4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-29), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-29), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-30), 10-K (filing date: 2015-07-06), 10-K (filing date: 2014-07-03).

1 NOPAT. See details »

2 Cost of capital. See details »

3 Invested capital. See details »

<>4 2019 Calculation
Economic profit = NOPAT – Cost of capital × Invested capital
= hiddenhidden × hidden = hidden

Item Description The company
Economic profit Economic profit is a measure of corporate performance computed by taking the spread between the return on invested capital and the cost of capital, and multiplying by the invested capital. General Mills Inc.’s economic profit declined from 2017 to 2018 but then slightly increased from 2018 to 2019.

Net Operating Profit after Taxes (NOPAT)

General Mills Inc., NOPAT calculation

US$ in thousands

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended May 26, 2019 May 27, 2018 May 28, 2017 May 29, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 25, 2014
Net earnings attributable to General Mills hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred income tax expense (benefit)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in allowance for doubtful accounts2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in LIFO reserve3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in reserve for restructuring and other exit charges4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in equity equivalents5 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest expense, net of capitalized interest hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest expense, operating lease liability6 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted interest expense, net of capitalized interest hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax benefit of interest expense, net of capitalized interest7 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted interest expense, net of capitalized interest, after taxes8 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
(Gain) loss on marketable securities hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Investment income, before taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income9 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Investment income, after taxes10 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-29), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-29), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-30), 10-K (filing date: 2015-07-06), 10-K (filing date: 2014-07-03).

1 Elimination of deferred tax expense. See details »

2 Addition of increase (decrease) in allowance for doubtful accounts.

3 Addition of increase (decrease) in LIFO reserve. See details »

4 Addition of increase (decrease) in reserve for restructuring and other exit charges.

5 Addition of increase (decrease) in equity equivalents to net earnings attributable to General Mills.

6 2019 Calculation
Interest expense on capitalized operating leases = Operating lease liability × Discount rate
= hidden × hidden = hidden

7 2019 Calculation
Tax benefit of interest expense, net of capitalized interest = Adjusted interest expense, net of capitalized interest × Statutory income tax rate
= hidden × 21.00% = hidden

8 Addition of after taxes interest expense to net earnings attributable to General Mills.

9 2019 Calculation
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income = Investment income, before tax × Statutory income tax rate
= hidden × 21.00% = hidden

10 Elimination of after taxes investment income.

Item Description The company
NOPAT Net operating profit after taxes is income from operations, but after removement of taxes calculated on cash basis that are relevant to operating income. General Mills Inc.’s NOPAT declined from 2017 to 2018 but then increased from 2018 to 2019 exceeding 2017 level.

Cash Operating Taxes

General Mills Inc., cash operating taxes calculation

US$ in thousands

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended May 26, 2019 May 27, 2018 May 28, 2017 May 29, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 25, 2014
Income taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Deferred income tax expense (benefit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Add: Tax savings from interest expense, net of capitalized interest hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Tax imposed on investment income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Cash operating taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-29), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-29), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-30), 10-K (filing date: 2015-07-06), 10-K (filing date: 2014-07-03).

Item Description The company
Cash operating taxes Cash operating taxes are estimated by adjusting income tax expense for changes in deferred taxes and tax benefit from the interest deduction. General Mills Inc.’s cash operating taxes increased from 2017 to 2018 but then declined significantly from 2018 to 2019.

Invested Capital

General Mills Inc., invested capital calculation (financing approach)

US$ in thousands

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
May 26, 2019 May 27, 2018 May 28, 2017 May 29, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 25, 2014
Current portion of long-term debt hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Notes payable hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Long-term debt, excluding current portion hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Operating lease liability1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total reported debt & leases hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Stockholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net deferred tax (assets) liabilities2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Allowance for doubtful accounts3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Excess of FIFO over LIFO cost4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Reserve for restructuring and other exit charges5 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Equity equivalents6 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Accumulated other comprehensive (income) loss, net of tax7 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Redeemable interest hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Noncontrolling interests hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted stockholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Construction in progress8 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Marketable securities9 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-29), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-29), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-30), 10-K (filing date: 2015-07-06), 10-K (filing date: 2014-07-03).

1 Addition of capitalized operating leases.

2 Elimination of deferred taxes from assets and liabilities. See details »

3 Addition of allowance for doubtful accounts receivable.

4 Addition of LIFO reserve. See details »

5 Addition of reserve for restructuring and other exit charges.

6 Addition of equity equivalents to stockholders’ equity.

7 Removal of accumulated other comprehensive income.

8 Subtraction of construction in progress.

9 Subtraction of marketable securities.

Item Description The company
Invested capital Capital is an approximation of the economic book value of all cash invested in going-concern business activities. General Mills Inc.’s invested capital increased from 2017 to 2018 but then slightly declined from 2018 to 2019.

Cost of Capital

General Mills Inc., cost of capital calculations

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 21.00%) = hidden
Operating lease liability4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 21.00%) = hidden
Total capital: hidden Total weights: hidden Cost of total capital: hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-28).

1 US$ in thousands

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 29.40%) = hidden
Operating lease liability4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 29.40%) = hidden
Total capital: hidden Total weights: hidden Cost of total capital: hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-29).

1 US$ in thousands

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Operating lease liability4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total capital: hidden Total weights: hidden Cost of total capital: hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-29).

1 US$ in thousands

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Operating lease liability4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total capital: hidden Total weights: hidden Cost of total capital: hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-30).

1 US$ in thousands

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Operating lease liability4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total capital: hidden Total weights: hidden Cost of total capital: hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2015-07-06).

1 US$ in thousands

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Operating lease liability4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total capital: hidden Total weights: hidden Cost of total capital: hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2014-07-03).

1 US$ in thousands

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »


Economic Spread Ratio

General Mills Inc., economic spread ratio calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
May 26, 2019 May 27, 2018 May 28, 2017 May 29, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 25, 2014
Selected Financial Data (US$ in thousands)
Economic profit1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Performance Ratio
Economic spread ratio3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-29), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-29), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-30), 10-K (filing date: 2015-07-06), 10-K (filing date: 2014-07-03).

1 Economic profit. See details »

2 Invested capital. See details »

3 2019 Calculation
Economic spread ratio = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Invested capital
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Performance ratio Description The company
Economic spread ratio The ratio of economic profit to invested capital, also equal to the difference between return on invested capital (ROIC) and cost of capital. General Mills Inc.’s economic spread ratio deteriorated from 2017 to 2018 but then slightly improved from 2018 to 2019.

Economic Profit Margin

General Mills Inc., economic profit margin calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
May 26, 2019 May 27, 2018 May 28, 2017 May 29, 2016 May 31, 2015 May 25, 2014
Selected Financial Data (US$ in thousands)
Economic profit1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net sales hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Performance Ratio
Economic profit margin2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-06-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-06-29), 10-K (filing date: 2017-06-29), 10-K (filing date: 2016-06-30), 10-K (filing date: 2015-07-06), 10-K (filing date: 2014-07-03).

1 Economic profit. See details »

2 2019 Calculation
Economic profit margin = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Net sales
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Performance ratio Description The company
Economic profit margin The ratio of economic profit to sales. It is the company’s profit margin covering income efficiency and asset management. Economic profit margin is not biased in favor of capital-intensive business models, because any added capital is a cost to the economic profit margin. General Mills Inc.’s economic profit margin deteriorated from 2017 to 2018 but then slightly improved from 2018 to 2019.