Analysis of Inventory
Inventory Accounting Policy
Inventoried costs on commercial aircraft programs and long-term contracts include direct engineering, production and tooling and other non-recurring costs, and applicable overhead, which includes fringe benefits, production related indirect and plant management salaries and plant services, not in excess of estimated net realizable value. To the extent a material amount of such costs are related to an abnormal event or are fixed costs not appropriately attributable to Boeing’s programs or contracts, they are expensed in the current period rather than inventoried. Inventoried costs include amounts relating to programs and contracts with long-term production cycles, a portion of which is not expected to be realized within one year. Included in inventory for federal government contracts is an allocation of allowable costs related to manufacturing process reengineering.
Commercial aircraft programs inventory includes deferred production costs and supplier advances. Deferred production costs represent actual costs incurred for production of early units that exceed the estimated average cost of all units in the program accounting quantity. Higher production costs are experienced at the beginning of a new or derivative airplane program. Units produced early in a program require substantially more effort (labor and other resources) than units produced later in a program because of volume efficiencies and the effects of learning. Boeing expects that these deferred costs will be fully recovered when all units included in the accounting quantity are delivered as the expected unit cost for later deliveries is below the estimated average cost of all units in the program. Supplier advances represent payments for parts Boeing has contracted to receive from suppliers in the future. As parts are received, supplier advances are amortized to work in process.
The determination of net realizable value of long-term contract costs is based upon quarterly reviews that estimate costs to be incurred to complete all contract requirements. When actual contract costs and the estimate to complete exceed total estimated contract revenues, a loss provision is recorded. The determination of net realizable value of commercial aircraft program costs is based upon quarterly program reviews that estimate revenue and cost to be incurred to complete the program accounting quantity. When estimated costs to complete exceed estimated program revenues to go, a program loss provision is recorded in the current period for the estimated loss on all undelivered units in the accounting quantity.
Used aircraft purchased by the Commercial Airplanes segment and general stock materials are stated at cost not in excess of net realizable value. Spare parts inventory is stated at lower of average unit cost or net realizable value. Boeing reviews the commercial spare parts and general stock materials quarterly to identify impaired inventory, including excess or obsolete inventory, based on historical sales trends, expected production usage, and the size and age of the aircraft fleet using the part. Impaired inventories are charged to Cost of products in the period the impairment occurs.
Included in inventory for commercial aircraft programs are amounts paid or credited in cash, or other consideration to certain airline customers, that are referred to as early issue sales consideration. Early issue sales consideration is recognized as a reduction to revenue when the delivery of the aircraft under contract occurs. If an airline customer does not perform and take delivery of the contracted aircraft, Boeing believes that Boeing would have the ability to recover amounts paid. However, to the extent early issue sales consideration exceeds advances and is not considered to be otherwise recoverable, it would be written off in the current period.
Source: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-08).
Boeing Co., Statement of Financial Position, Inventory
USD $ in millions
|Dec 31, 2018||Dec 31, 2017||Dec 31, 2016||Dec 31, 2015||Dec 31, 2014|
|Long-term contracts in progress||2,129||13,889||12,801||13,858||13,381|
|Commercial aircraft programs||52,753||52,861||52,048||55,230||55,220|
|Commercial spare parts, used aircraft, general stock materials and other||7,685||5,688||5,446||6,673||7,421|
|Inventory before advances and progress billings||62,567||72,438||70,295||75,761||76,022|
|Less: Advances and progress billings||–||(28,094)||(27,096)||(28,504)||(29,266)|
|Inventories||Amount after valuation and LIFO reserves of inventory expected to be sold, or consumed within one year or operating cycle, if longer.||Boeing Co.’s inventories increased from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.|