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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc


Economic Value Added (EVA)

Difficulty: Advanced

EVA is registered trademark of Stern Stewart.

Economic value added or economic profit is the difference between revenues and costs,where costs include not only expenses, but also cost of capital.


Economic Profit

Walmart Inc., economic profit calculation

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Jan 31, 2018 Jan 31, 2017 Jan 31, 2016 Jan 31, 2015 Jan 31, 2014 Jan 31, 2013
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Cost of capital2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Economic profit4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-03-30), 10-K (filing date: 2017-03-31), 10-K (filing date: 2016-03-30), 10-K (filing date: 2015-04-01), 10-K (filing date: 2014-03-21), 10-K (filing date: 2013-03-26).

2018 Calculations

1 NOPAT. See Details »

2 Cost of capital. See Details »

3 Invested capital. See Details »

4 Economic profit = NOPAT – Cost of capital × Invested capital
= hiddenhidden × hidden = hidden

Item Description The company
Economic profit Economic profit is a measure of corporate performance computed by taking the spread between the return on invested capital and the cost of capital, and multiplying by the invested capital. Walmart Inc.’s economic profit increased from 2016 to 2017 but then declined significantly from 2017 to 2018.

Net Operating Profit after Taxes (NOPAT)

Walmart Inc., NOPAT calculation

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Jan 31, 2018 Jan 31, 2017 Jan 31, 2016 Jan 31, 2015 Jan 31, 2014 Jan 31, 2013
Consolidated net income attributable to Walmart hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred income tax expense (benefit)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in equity equivalents2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest expense, debt, capital lease and financing obligations hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest expense, operating lease obligations3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted interest expense, debt, capital lease and financing obligations hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax benefit of interest expense, debt, capital lease and financing obligations4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted interest expense, debt, capital lease and financing obligations, after taxes5 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Investment income, before taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income6 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Investment income, after taxes7 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
(Income) loss from discontinued operations, net of tax8 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-03-30), 10-K (filing date: 2017-03-31), 10-K (filing date: 2016-03-30), 10-K (filing date: 2015-04-01), 10-K (filing date: 2014-03-21), 10-K (filing date: 2013-03-26).

2018 Calculations

1 Elimination of deferred tax expense. See Details »

2 Addition of increase (decrease) in equity equivalents to consolidated net income attributable to Walmart.

3 Addition of interest expense on capitalized operating leases. See Details »

4 Tax benefit of interest expense, debt, capital lease and financing obligations = Adjusted interest expense, debt, capital lease and financing obligations × Statutory income tax rate
= hidden × 33.80% = hidden

5 Addition of after taxes interest expense to consolidated net income attributable to Walmart.

6 Tax expense (benefit) of investment income = Investment income, before tax × Statutory income tax rate
= hidden × 33.80% = hidden

7 Elimination of after taxes investment income.

8 Elimination of discontinued operations.

Item Description The company
NOPAT Net operating profit after taxes is income from operations, but after removement of taxes calculated on cash basis that are relevant to operating income. Walmart Inc.’s NOPAT increased from 2016 to 2017 but then declined significantly from 2017 to 2018.

Cash Operating Taxes

Walmart Inc., cash operating taxes calculation

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Jan 31, 2018 Jan 31, 2017 Jan 31, 2016 Jan 31, 2015 Jan 31, 2014 Jan 31, 2013
Provision for income taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Deferred income tax expense (benefit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Add: Tax savings from interest expense, debt, capital lease and financing obligations hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Tax imposed on investment income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Cash operating taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-03-30), 10-K (filing date: 2017-03-31), 10-K (filing date: 2016-03-30), 10-K (filing date: 2015-04-01), 10-K (filing date: 2014-03-21), 10-K (filing date: 2013-03-26).

Item Description The company
Cash operating taxes Cash operating taxes are estimated by adjusting income tax expense for changes in deferred taxes and tax benefit from the interest deduction. Walmart Inc.’s cash operating taxes declined from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Invested Capital

Walmart Inc., invested capital calculation (financing approach)

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Jan 31, 2018 Jan 31, 2017 Jan 31, 2016 Jan 31, 2015 Jan 31, 2014 Jan 31, 2013
Short-term borrowings hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Long-term debt due within one year hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Capital lease and financing obligations due within one year hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Long-term debt, excluding due within one year hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Long-term capital lease and financing obligations, excluding due within one year hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
PV of operating lease payments1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total reported debt & leases hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total Walmart shareholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net deferred tax (assets) liabilities2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Equity equivalents3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Accumulated other comprehensive (income) loss, net of tax4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Redeemable noncontrolling interest hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Nonredeemable noncontrolling interest hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total Walmart shareholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Construction in process5 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Available-for-sale securities6 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-03-30), 10-K (filing date: 2017-03-31), 10-K (filing date: 2016-03-30), 10-K (filing date: 2015-04-01), 10-K (filing date: 2014-03-21), 10-K (filing date: 2013-03-26).

1 Addition of capitalized operating leases. See Details »

2 Elimination of deferred taxes from assets and liabilities. See Details »

3 Addition of equity equivalents to total Walmart shareholders’ equity.

4 Removal of accumulated other comprehensive income.

5 Subtraction of construction in process.

6 Subtraction of available-for-sale securities.

Item Description The company
Invested capital Capital is an approximation of the economic book value of all cash invested in going-concern business activities. Walmart Inc.’s invested capital declined from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Cost of Capital

Walmart Inc., cost of capital calculations

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt, capital lease and financing obligations3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 33.80%) = hidden
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 33.80%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-03-30).

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt, capital lease and financing obligations. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt, capital lease and financing obligations3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2017-03-31).

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt, capital lease and financing obligations. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt, capital lease and financing obligations3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2016-03-30).

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt, capital lease and financing obligations. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt, capital lease and financing obligations3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2015-04-01).

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt, capital lease and financing obligations. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt, capital lease and financing obligations3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2014-03-21).

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt, capital lease and financing obligations. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Debt, capital lease and financing obligations3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2013-03-26).

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt, capital lease and financing obligations. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »


Economic Spread

Walmart Inc., economic spread calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Jan 31, 2018 Jan 31, 2017 Jan 31, 2016 Jan 31, 2015 Jan 31, 2014 Jan 31, 2013
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Economic profit1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Economic spread3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-03-30), 10-K (filing date: 2017-03-31), 10-K (filing date: 2016-03-30), 10-K (filing date: 2015-04-01), 10-K (filing date: 2014-03-21), 10-K (filing date: 2013-03-26).

2018 Calculations

1 Economic profit. See Details »

2 Invested capital. See Details »

3 Economic spread = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Invested capital
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Economic spread The ratio of economic profit to invested capital, also equal to the difference between return on invested capital (ROIC) and cost of capital. Walmart Inc.’s economic spread improved from 2016 to 2017 but then deteriorated significantly from 2017 to 2018.

Economic Profit Margin

Walmart Inc., economic profit margin calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Jan 31, 2018 Jan 31, 2017 Jan 31, 2016 Jan 31, 2015 Jan 31, 2014 Jan 31, 2013
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Economic profit1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net sales hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Economic profit margin2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-03-30), 10-K (filing date: 2017-03-31), 10-K (filing date: 2016-03-30), 10-K (filing date: 2015-04-01), 10-K (filing date: 2014-03-21), 10-K (filing date: 2013-03-26).

2018 Calculations

1 Economic profit. See Details »

2 Economic profit margin = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Net sales
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Economic profit margin The ratio of economic profit to sales. It is the company’s profit margin covering income efficiency and asset management. Economic profit margin is not biased in favor of capital-intensive business models, because any added capital is a cost to the economic profit margin. Walmart Inc.’s economic profit margin improved from 2016 to 2017 but then deteriorated significantly from 2017 to 2018.