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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

Costco Wholesale Corp. (COST)


Economic Value Added (EVA)

Advanced level

EVA is registered trademark of Stern Stewart.

Economic value added or economic profit is the difference between revenues and costs,where costs include not only expenses, but also cost of capital.


Economic Profit

Costco Wholesale Corp., economic profit calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Sep 1, 2019 Sep 2, 2018 Sep 3, 2017 Aug 28, 2016 Aug 30, 2015 Aug 31, 2014
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Cost of capital2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
 
Economic profit4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-10-11), 10-K (filing date: 2018-10-26), 10-K (filing date: 2017-10-18), 10-K (filing date: 2016-10-12), 10-K (filing date: 2015-10-14), 10-K (filing date: 2014-10-15).

1 NOPAT. See details »

2 Cost of capital. See details »

3 Invested capital. See details »

<>4 2019 Calculation
Economic profit = NOPAT – Cost of capital × Invested capital
= hiddenhidden × hidden = hidden

Item Description The company
Economic profit Economic profit is a measure of corporate performance computed by taking the spread between the return on invested capital and the cost of capital, and multiplying by the invested capital. Costco Wholesale Corp.’s economic profit increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Net Operating Profit after Taxes (NOPAT)

Costco Wholesale Corp., NOPAT calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Sep 1, 2019 Sep 2, 2018 Sep 3, 2017 Aug 28, 2016 Aug 30, 2015 Aug 31, 2014
Net income attributable to Costco hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred income tax expense (benefit)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in LIFO reserve2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in equity equivalents3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest expense hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest expense, operating lease liability4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted interest expense hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax benefit of interest expense5 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted interest expense, after taxes6 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
(Gain) loss on marketable securities hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Investment income, before taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income7 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Investment income, after taxes8 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-10-11), 10-K (filing date: 2018-10-26), 10-K (filing date: 2017-10-18), 10-K (filing date: 2016-10-12), 10-K (filing date: 2015-10-14), 10-K (filing date: 2014-10-15).

1 Elimination of deferred tax expense. See details »

2 Addition of increase (decrease) in LIFO reserve. See details »

3 Addition of increase (decrease) in equity equivalents to net income attributable to Costco.

4 2019 Calculation
Interest expense on capitalized operating leases = Operating lease liability × Discount rate
= hidden × hidden = hidden

5 2019 Calculation
Tax benefit of interest expense = Adjusted interest expense × Statutory income tax rate
= hidden × 21.00% = hidden

6 Addition of after taxes interest expense to net income attributable to Costco.

7 2019 Calculation
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income = Investment income, before tax × Statutory income tax rate
= hidden × 21.00% = hidden

8 Elimination of after taxes investment income.

Item Description The company
NOPAT Net operating profit after taxes is income from operations, but after removement of taxes calculated on cash basis that are relevant to operating income. Costco Wholesale Corp.’s NOPAT increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Cash Operating Taxes

Costco Wholesale Corp., cash operating taxes calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Sep 1, 2019 Sep 2, 2018 Sep 3, 2017 Aug 28, 2016 Aug 30, 2015 Aug 31, 2014
Provision for income taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Deferred income tax expense (benefit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Add: Tax savings from interest expense hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Tax imposed on investment income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Cash operating taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-10-11), 10-K (filing date: 2018-10-26), 10-K (filing date: 2017-10-18), 10-K (filing date: 2016-10-12), 10-K (filing date: 2015-10-14), 10-K (filing date: 2014-10-15).

Item Description The company
Cash operating taxes Cash operating taxes are estimated by adjusting income tax expense for changes in deferred taxes and tax benefit from the interest deduction. Costco Wholesale Corp.’s cash operating taxes decreased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Invested Capital

Costco Wholesale Corp., invested capital calculation (financing approach)

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Sep 1, 2019 Sep 2, 2018 Sep 3, 2017 Aug 28, 2016 Aug 30, 2015 Aug 31, 2014
Current portion of long-term debt hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Long-term debt, excluding current portion hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Operating lease liability1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total reported debt & leases hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total Costco stockholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net deferred tax (assets) liabilities2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
LIFO reserve3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Equity equivalents4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Accumulated other comprehensive (income) loss, net of tax5 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Noncontrolling interests hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total Costco stockholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Construction in progress6 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Short-term investments7 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-10-11), 10-K (filing date: 2018-10-26), 10-K (filing date: 2017-10-18), 10-K (filing date: 2016-10-12), 10-K (filing date: 2015-10-14), 10-K (filing date: 2014-10-15).

1 Addition of capitalized operating leases.

2 Elimination of deferred taxes from assets and liabilities. See details »

3 Addition of LIFO reserve. See details »

4 Addition of equity equivalents to total Costco stockholders’ equity.

5 Removal of accumulated other comprehensive income.

6 Subtraction of construction in progress.

7 Subtraction of short-term investments.

Item Description The company
Invested capital Capital is an approximation of the economic book value of all cash invested in going-concern business activities. Costco Wholesale Corp.’s invested capital increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Cost of Capital

Costco Wholesale Corp., cost of capital calculations

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Long-term debt, including current portion3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 21.00%) = hidden
Operating lease liability4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 21.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-10-11).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Long-term debt, including current portion. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Long-term debt, including current portion3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 25.60%) = hidden
Operating lease liability4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 25.60%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-10-26).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Long-term debt, including current portion. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Long-term debt, including current portion3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Operating lease liability4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2017-10-18).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Long-term debt, including current portion. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Long-term debt, including current portion3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Operating lease liability4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2016-10-12).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Long-term debt, including current portion. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Long-term debt, including current portion3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Operating lease liability4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2015-10-14).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Long-term debt, including current portion. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden = hidden
Long-term debt, including current portion3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Operating lease liability4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden × (1 – 35.00%) = hidden
Total: hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2014-10-15).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Long-term debt, including current portion. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »


Economic Spread Ratio

Costco Wholesale Corp., economic spread ratio calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Sep 1, 2019 Sep 2, 2018 Sep 3, 2017 Aug 28, 2016 Aug 30, 2015 Aug 31, 2014
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Economic profit1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Performance Ratio
Economic spread ratio3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-10-11), 10-K (filing date: 2018-10-26), 10-K (filing date: 2017-10-18), 10-K (filing date: 2016-10-12), 10-K (filing date: 2015-10-14), 10-K (filing date: 2014-10-15).

1 Economic profit. See details »

2 Invested capital. See details »

3 2019 Calculation
Economic spread ratio = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Invested capital
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Performance ratio Description The company
Economic spread ratio The ratio of economic profit to invested capital, also equal to the difference between return on invested capital (ROIC) and cost of capital. Costco Wholesale Corp.’s economic spread ratio improved from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Economic Profit Margin

Costco Wholesale Corp., economic profit margin calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Sep 1, 2019 Sep 2, 2018 Sep 3, 2017 Aug 28, 2016 Aug 30, 2015 Aug 31, 2014
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Economic profit1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net sales hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Performance Ratio
Economic profit margin2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-10-11), 10-K (filing date: 2018-10-26), 10-K (filing date: 2017-10-18), 10-K (filing date: 2016-10-12), 10-K (filing date: 2015-10-14), 10-K (filing date: 2014-10-15).

1 Economic profit. See details »

2 2019 Calculation
Economic profit margin = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Net sales
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Performance ratio Description The company
Economic profit margin The ratio of economic profit to sales. It is the company’s profit margin covering income efficiency and asset management. Economic profit margin is not biased in favor of capital-intensive business models, because any added capital is a cost to the economic profit margin. Costco Wholesale Corp.’s economic profit margin improved from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.