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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc


Economic Value Added (EVA)

Difficulty: Advanced

EVA is registered trademark of Stern Stewart.

Economic value added or economic profit is the difference between revenues and costs,where costs include not only expenses, but also cost of capital.


Economic Profit

Costco Wholesale Corp., economic profit calculation

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Sep 3, 2017 Aug 28, 2016 Aug 30, 2015 Aug 31, 2014 Sep 1, 2013 Sep 2, 2012
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Cost of capital2 hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%
Invested capital3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Economic profit4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Source: Based on data from Costco Wholesale Corp. Annual Reports

2017 Calculations

1 NOPAT. See Details »

2 Cost of capital. See Details »

3 Invested capital. See Details »

4 Economic profit = NOPAT – Cost of capital × Invested capital
= hiddenhidden% × hidden = hidden

Item Description The company
Economic profit Economic profit is a measure of corporate performance computed by taking the spread between the return on invested capital and the cost of capital, and multiplying by the invested capital. Costco Wholesale Corp.'s economic profit increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Net Operating Profit after Taxes (NOPAT)

Costco Wholesale Corp., NOPAT calculation

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Sep 3, 2017 Aug 28, 2016 Aug 30, 2015 Aug 31, 2014 Sep 1, 2013 Sep 2, 2012
Net income attributable to Costco hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Deferred income tax expense (benefit)1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in LIFO reserve2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Increase (decrease) in equity equivalents3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest expense hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest expense, operating lease obligations4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted interest expense hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax benefit of interest expense5 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted interest expense, after taxes6 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
(Gain) loss on marketable securities hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Interest income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Investment income, before taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income7 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Investment income, after taxes8 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Source: Based on data from Costco Wholesale Corp. Annual Reports

2017 Calculations

1 Elimination of deferred tax expense. See Details »

2 Addition of increase (decrease) in LIFO reserve. See Details »

3 Addition of increase (decrease) in equity equivalents to net income attributable to Costco.

4 Addition of interest expense on capitalized operating leases. See Details »

5 Tax benefit of interest expense = Adjusted interest expense × Statutory income tax rate
= hidden × 35% = hidden

6 Addition of after taxes interest expense to net income attributable to Costco.

7 Tax expense (benefit) of investment income = Investment income, before tax × Statutory income tax rate
= hidden × 35% = hidden

8 Elimination of after taxes investment income.

Item Description The company
NOPAT Net operating profit after taxes is income from operations, but after removement of taxes calculated on cash basis that are relevant to operating income. Costco Wholesale Corp.'s NOPAT increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Cash Operating Taxes

Costco Wholesale Corp., cash operating taxes calculation

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Sep 3, 2017 Aug 28, 2016 Aug 30, 2015 Aug 31, 2014 Sep 1, 2013 Sep 2, 2012
Provision for income taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Deferred income tax expense (benefit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Add: Tax savings from interest expense hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Tax imposed on investment income hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Cash operating taxes hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Source: Based on data from Costco Wholesale Corp. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Cash operating taxes Cash operating taxes are estimated by adjusting income tax expense for changes in deferred taxes and tax benefit from the interest deduction. Costco Wholesale Corp.'s cash operating taxes declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 exceeding 2015 level.

Invested Capital

Costco Wholesale Corp., invested capital calculation (financing approach)

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Sep 3, 2017 Aug 28, 2016 Aug 30, 2015 Aug 31, 2014 Sep 1, 2013 Sep 2, 2012
Short-term borrowings hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Current portion of long-term debt hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Long-term debt, excluding current portion hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
PV of operating lease payments1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total reported debt & leases hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total Costco stockholders' equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net deferred tax (assets) liabilities2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
LIFO reserve3 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Equity equivalents4 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Accumulated other comprehensive (income) loss, net of tax5 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Noncontrolling interests hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total Costco stockholders' equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Construction in progress6 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Short-term investments7 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Source: Based on data from Costco Wholesale Corp. Annual Reports

1 Addition of capitalized operating leases. See Details »

2 Elimination of deferred taxes from assets and liabilities. See Details »

3 Addition of LIFO reserve. See Details »

4 Addition of equity equivalents to total Costco stockholders' equity.

5 Removal of accumulated other comprehensive income.

6 Subtraction of construction in progress.

7 Subtraction of short-term investments.

Item Description The company
Invested capital Capital is an approximation of the economic book value of all cash invested in going-concern business activities. Costco Wholesale Corp.'s invested capital increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Cost of Capital

Costco Wholesale Corp., cost of capital calculations

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% = hidden%
Debt3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
Total: hidden hidden hidden%

Source: Based on data from Costco Wholesale Corp. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% = hidden%
Debt3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
Total: hidden hidden hidden%

Source: Based on data from Costco Wholesale Corp. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% = hidden%
Debt3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
Total: hidden hidden hidden%

Source: Based on data from Costco Wholesale Corp. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% = hidden%
Debt3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
Total: hidden hidden hidden%

Source: Based on data from Costco Wholesale Corp. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% = hidden%
Debt3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
Total: hidden hidden hidden%

Source: Based on data from Costco Wholesale Corp. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% = hidden%
Debt3 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
PV of operating lease payments4 hidden hidden ÷ hidden = hidden hidden × hidden% × (1 – 35%) = hidden%
Total: hidden hidden hidden%

Source: Based on data from Costco Wholesale Corp. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in millions

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »


Economic Spread

Costco Wholesale Corp., economic spread calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Sep 3, 2017 Aug 28, 2016 Aug 30, 2015 Aug 31, 2014 Sep 1, 2013 Sep 2, 2012
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Economic profit1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Invested capital2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Economic spread3 hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%

Source: Based on data from Costco Wholesale Corp. Annual Reports

2017 Calculations

1 Economic profit. See Details »

2 Invested capital. See Details »

3 Economic spread = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Invested capital
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden%

Ratio Description The company
Economic spread The ratio of economic profit to invested capital, also equal to the difference between return on invested capital (ROIC) and cost of capital. Costco Wholesale Corp.'s economic spread improved from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

Economic Profit Margin

Costco Wholesale Corp., economic profit margin calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Sep 3, 2017 Aug 28, 2016 Aug 30, 2015 Aug 31, 2014 Sep 1, 2013 Sep 2, 2012
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Economic profit1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net sales hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Economic profit margin2 hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden% hidden%

Source: Based on data from Costco Wholesale Corp. Annual Reports

2017 Calculations

1 Economic profit. See Details »

2 Economic profit margin = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Net sales
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden%

Ratio Description The company
Economic profit margin The ratio of economic profit to sales. It is the company's profit margin covering income efficiency and asset management. Economic profit margin is not biased in favor of capital-intensive business models, because any added capital is a cost to the economic profit margin. Costco Wholesale Corp.'s economic profit margin improved from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.