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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

Occidental Petroleum Corp. (OXY)


Analysis of Property, Plant and Equipment

High level of difficulty


Accounting Policy on Property, Plant and Equipment

Oil and Gas

The carrying value of Occidental’s property, plant and equipment (PP&E) represents the cost incurred to acquire or develop the asset, including any asset retirement obligations and capitalized interest, net of accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization (DD&A) and any impairment charges. For assets acquired, PP&E cost is based on fair values at the acquisition date. Asset retirement obligations and interest costs incurred in connection with qualifying capital expenditures are capitalized and amortized over the lives of the related assets.

Occidental uses the successful efforts method to account for its oil and gas properties. Under this method, Occidental capitalizes costs of acquiring properties, costs of drilling successful exploration wells and development costs. The costs of exploratory wells are initially capitalized pending a determination of whether proved reserves have been found. If proved reserves have been found, the costs of exploratory wells remain capitalized. Otherwise, Occidental charges the costs of the related wells to expense. In some cases, a determination of proved reserves cannot be made at the completion of drilling, requiring additional testing and evaluation of the wells. Occidental generally expenses the costs of such exploratory wells if a determination of proved reserves has not been made within a 12-month period after drilling is complete.

Occidental expenses annual lease rentals, the costs of injectants used in production and geological, geophysical and seismic costs as incurred.

Occidental determines depreciation and depletion of oil and gas producing properties by the unit-of-production method. It amortizes leasehold costs over total proved reserves, and capitalized development and successful exploration costs over proved developed reserves.

Proved oil and gas reserves are those quantities of oil and gas which, by analysis of geoscience and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible-from a given date forward, from known reservoirs, and under existing economic conditions, operating methods, and government regulations-prior to the time at which contracts providing the right to operate expire, unless evidence indicates that renewal is reasonably certain, regardless of whether deterministic or probabilistic methods are used for the estimation. Occidental has no proved oil and gas reserves for which the determination of economic producibility is subject to the completion of major additional capital expenditures.

Occidental performs impairment tests with respect to its proved properties whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of property may not be recoverable. If there is an indication the carrying amount of the asset may not be recovered due to declines in current and forward prices, significant changes in reserve estimates, changes in management’s plans, or other significant events, management will evaluate the property for impairment. Under the successful efforts method, if the sum of the undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying value of the proved property, the carrying value is reduced to estimated fair value and reported as an impairment charge in the period. Individual proved properties are grouped for impairment purposes at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows. The fair value of impaired assets is typically determined based on the present value of expected future cash flows using discount rates believed to be consistent with those used by market participants. The impairment test incorporates a number of assumptions involving expectations of future cash flows which can change significantly over time. These assumptions include future production and timing of production, estimates of future product prices, contractual prices, estimates of risk-adjusted oil and gas reserves and estimates of future operating and development costs.

A portion of the carrying value of Occidental’s oil and gas properties is attributable to unproved properties. Net capitalized costs attributable to unproved properties were $1.0 billion at both December 31, 2018, and 2017. The unproved amounts are not subject to DD&A until they are classified as proved properties. Capitalized costs attributable to the properties become subject to DD&A when proved reserves are assigned to the property. If the exploration efforts are unsuccessful, or management decides not to pursue development of these properties as a result of lower commodity prices, higher development and operating costs, contractual conditions or other factors, the capitalized costs of the related properties would be expensed. The timing of any writedowns of these unproved properties, if warranted, depends upon management’s plans, the nature, timing and extent of future exploration and development activities and their results.

Chemical

Occidental’s chemical assets are depreciated using either the unit-of-production or the straight-line method, based upon the estimated useful lives of the facilities. The estimated useful lives of Occidental’s chemical assets, which range from three years to 50 years, are also used for impairment tests. The estimated useful lives for the chemical facilities are based on the assumption that Occidental will provide an appropriate level of annual expenditures to ensure productive capacity is sustained. Such expenditures consist of ongoing routine repairs and maintenance, as well as planned major maintenance activities (PMMA). Ongoing routine repairs and maintenance expenditures are expensed as incurred. PMMA costs are capitalized and amortized over the period until the next planned overhaul. Additionally, Occidental incurs capital expenditures that extend the remaining useful lives of existing assets, increase their capacity or operating efficiency beyond the original specification or add value through modification for a different use. These capital expenditures are not considered in the initial determination of the useful lives of these assets at the time they are placed into service. The resulting revision, if any, of the asset’s estimated useful life is measured and accounted for prospectively.

Without these continued expenditures, the useful lives of these assets could decrease significantly. Other factors that could change the estimated useful lives of Occidental’s chemical assets include sustained higher or lower product prices, which are affected by domestic and international competition, demand, feedstock costs, energy prices, environmental regulations and technological changes.

Occidental performs impairment tests on its chemical assets whenever events or changes in circumstances lead to a reduction in the estimated useful lives or estimated future cash flows that would indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable, or when management’s plans change with respect to those assets. Any impairment loss would be calculated as the excess of the asset’s net book value over its estimated fair value.

Midstream and Marketing

Occidental’s midstream and marketing PP&E is depreciated over the estimated useful lives of the assets, using either the unit-of-production or straight-line method.

Occidental performs impairment tests on its midstream and marketing assets whenever events or changes in circumstances lead to a reduction in the estimated useful lives or estimated future cash flows that would indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable, or when management’s plans change with respect to those assets. Any impairment loss would be calculated as the excess of the asset’s net book value over its estimated fair value.

Source: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-21).


Property, Plant and Equipment Disclosure

Occidental Petroleum Corp., balance sheet: property, plant and equipment

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Oil and gas segment hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Chemical segment hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Midstream and marketing segment hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Corporate hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Property, plant and equipment, gross hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Property, plant and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-23).

Item Description The company
Property, plant and equipment, gross Amount before accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization of physical assets used in the normal conduct of business and not intended for resale. Examples include, but are not limited to, land, buildings, machinery and equipment, office equipment, and furniture and fixtures. Occidental Petroleum Corp.’s property, plant and equipment, gross declined from 2016 to 2017 but then increased from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.
Property, plant and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization Amount after accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization of physical assets used in the normal conduct of business to produce goods and services and not intended for resale. Examples include, but are not limited to, land, buildings, machinery and equipment, office equipment, and furniture and fixtures. Occidental Petroleum Corp.’s property, plant and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization declined from 2016 to 2017 but then slightly increased from 2017 to 2018.

Property, Plant and Equipment Ratios (Summary)

Occidental Petroleum Corp., Property, Plant and Equipment Ratios

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Average age hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-23).

Financial ratio Description The company
Average age As long as straight-line depreciation is used, this is an accurate estimate of asset age as a percentage of depreciable life. The relative age is a useful measure of whether the company’s fixed asset base is old or new. Newer assets are likely to be more efficient. Occidental Petroleum Corp.’s average age of depreciable property, plant and equipment deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Average Age

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Property, plant and equipment, gross hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Average age1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-21), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-23).

2018 Calculations

1 Average age = 100 × Accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization ÷ Property, plant and equipment, gross
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Financial ratio Description The company
Average age As long as straight-line depreciation is used, this is an accurate estimate of asset age as a percentage of depreciable life. The relative age is a useful measure of whether the company’s fixed asset base is old or new. Newer assets are likely to be more efficient. Occidental Petroleum Corp.’s average age of depreciable property, plant and equipment deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.