3M Co. (MMM)
Analysis of Revenues
Accounting Policy on Revenue Recognition
3M adopted ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and other related ASUs (collectively, ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers) on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective transition approach.
3M sells a wide range of products to a diversified base of customers around the world and has no material concentration of credit risk or significant payment terms extended to customers. The vast majority of 3M’s customer arrangements contain a single performance obligation to transfer manufactured goods as the promise to transfer the individual goods is not separately identifiable from other promises in the contracts and, therefore, not distinct. However, to a limited extent 3M also enters into customer arrangements that involve intellectual property out-licensing, multiple performance obligations (such as equipment, installation and service), software with coterminous post-contract support, services and non-standard terms and conditions.
Revenue is recognized when control of goods has transferred to customers. For the majority of 3M’s customer arrangements, control transfers to customers at a point-in-time when goods/services have been delivered as that is generally when legal title, physical possession and risks and rewards of goods/services transfers to the customer. In limited arrangements, control transfers over time as the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits as 3M completes the performance obligation(s).
Revenue is recognized at the transaction price which 3M expects to be entitled. When determining the transaction price, 3M estimates variable consideration applying the portfolio approach practical expedient under ASC 606. The main sources of variable consideration for 3M are customer rebates, trade promotion funds, and cash discounts. These sales incentives are recorded as a reduction to revenue at the time of the initial sale using the most-likely amount estimation method. The most-likely amount method is based on the single most likely outcome from a range of possible consideration outcomes. The range of possible consideration outcomes are primarily derived from the following inputs: sales terms, historical experience, trend analysis, and projected market conditions in the various markets served. Because 3M serves numerous markets, the sales incentive programs offered vary across businesses, but the most common incentive relates to amounts paid or credited to customers for achieving defined volume levels or growth objectives. There are no material instances where variable consideration is constrained and not recorded at the initial time of sale. Free goods are accounted for as an expense and recorded in cost of sales. Product returns are recorded as a reduction to revenue based on anticipated sales returns that occur in the normal course of business. 3M primarily has assurance-type warranties that do not result in separate performance obligations. Sales, use, value-added, and other excise taxes are not recognized in revenue. 3M has elected to present revenue net of sales taxes and other similar taxes.
For substantially all arrangements recognized over time, 3M applies the “right to invoice” practical expedient. As a result, 3M recognizes revenue at the invoice amount when the entity has a right to invoice a customer at an amount that corresponds directly with the value to the customer of 3M’s performance completed to date.
For contracts with multiple performance obligations, 3M allocates the contract’s transaction price to each performance obligation using 3M’s best estimate of the standalone selling price of each distinct good or service in the contract.
3M did not recognize any material revenue in the current reporting period for performance obligations that were fully satisfied in previous periods.
3M does not have material unfulfilled performance obligation balances for contracts with an original length greater than one year in any years presented. Additionally, 3M does not have material costs related to obtaining a contract with amortization periods greater than one year for any year presented.
3M applies ASC 606 utilizing the following allowable exemptions or practical expedients:
- Exemption to not disclose the unfulfilled performance obligation balance for contracts with an original length of one year or less.
- Practical expedient relative to costs of obtaining a contract by expensing sales commissions when incurred because the amortization period would have been one year or less.
- Portfolio approach practical expedient relative to estimation of variable consideration.
- “Right to invoice” practical expedient based on 3M’s right to invoice the customer at an amount that reasonably represents the value to the customer of 3M’s performance completed to date.
- Election to present revenue net of sales taxes and other similar taxes.
- Sales-based royalty exemption permitting future intellectual property out-licensing royalty payments to be excluded from the otherwise required remaining performance obligations disclosure.
Source: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-07).
Revenues as Reported
3M Co., Income Statement, Revenues
US$ in millions
|12 months ended||Dec 31, 2018||Dec 31, 2017||Dec 31, 2016||Dec 31, 2015||Dec 31, 2014|
|Safety and Graphics|
|Electronics and Energy|
|Corporate and Unallocated|
|Elimination of Dual Credit|
|Net sales||Amount of revenue recognized from goods sold, services rendered, insurance premiums, or other activities that constitute an earning process. Includes, but is not limited to, investment and interest income before deduction of interest expense when recognized as a component of revenue, and sales and trading gain (loss).||3M Co.’s net sales increased from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.|