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Analysis of Revenues
Revenue Recognition Accounting Policy
3M sells a wide range of products to a diversified base of customers around the world and has no material concentration of credit risk. Revenue is recognized when the risks and rewards of ownership have substantively transferred to customers. This condition normally is met when the product has been delivered or upon performance of services. 3M records estimated reductions to revenue or records expense for customer and distributor incentives, primarily comprised of rebates and free goods, at the time of the initial sale. These sales incentives are accounted for in accordance with ASC 605, Revenue Recognition. The estimated reductions of revenue for rebates are based on the sales terms, historical experience, trend analysis and projected market conditions in the various markets served. Since 3M serves numerous markets, the rebate programs offered vary across businesses, but the most common incentive relates to amounts paid or credited to customers for achieving defined volume levels or growth objectives. Free goods are accounted for as an expense and recorded in cost of sales. Sales, use, value-added and other excise taxes are not recognized in revenue.
The vast majority of 3M’s sales agreements are for standard products and services with customer acceptance occurring upon delivery of the product or performance of the service. However, to a limited extent 3M also enters into agreements that involve multiple elements (such as equipment, installation and service), software, or non-standard terms and conditions.
For non-software multiple-element arrangements, 3M recognizes revenue for delivered elements when they have stand-alone value to the customer, they have been accepted by the customer, and for which there are only customary refund or return rights. Arrangement consideration is allocated to the deliverables by use of the relative selling price method. The selling price used for each deliverable is based on vendor-specific objective evidence (VSOE) if available, third-party evidence (TPE) if VSOE is not available, or estimated selling price if neither VSOE nor TPE is available. Estimated selling price is determined in a manner consistent with that used to establish the price to sell the deliverable on a standalone basis. In addition to the preceding conditions, equipment revenue is not recorded until the installation has been completed if equipment acceptance is dependent upon installation or if installation is essential to the functionality of the equipment. Installation revenues are not recorded until installation has been completed.
For arrangements (or portions of arrangements) falling within software revenue recognition standards and that do not involve significant production, modification, or customization, revenue for each software or software-related element is recognized when 3M has VSOE of the fair value of all of the undelivered elements and applicable criteria have been met for the delivered elements. When the arrangements involve significant production, modification or customization, long-term construction-type accounting involving proportional performance is employed.
For prepaid service contracts, sales revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract, unless historical evidence indicates the costs are incurred on other than a straight-line basis. License fee revenue is recognized as earned, and no revenue is recognized until the inception of the license term.
On occasion, agreements will contain milestones, or 3M will recognize revenue based on proportional performance. For these agreements, and depending on the specifics, 3M may recognize revenue upon completion of a substantive milestone, or in proportion to costs incurred to date compared with the estimate of total costs to be incurred.
Source: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-08).
Revenues as Reported
3M Co., Income Statement, Revenues
USD $ in millions
|12 months ended||Dec 31, 2017||Dec 31, 2016||Dec 31, 2015||Dec 31, 2014||Dec 31, 2013|
|Safety and Graphics|
|Electronics and Energy|
|Corporate and Unallocated|
|Elimination of Dual Credit|
|Net sales||Amount of revenue recognized from goods sold, services rendered, insurance premiums, or other activities that constitute an earning process. Includes, but is not limited to, investment and interest income before deduction of interest expense when recognized as a component of revenue, and sales and trading gain (loss).||3M Co.’s net sales declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 exceeding 2015 level.|