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Goodwill and Intangible Assets Accounting Policy

Goodwill

Goodwill is the excess of cost of an acquired entity over the amounts assigned to assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. Goodwill is not amortized. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually in the fourth quarter of each year, and is tested for impairment between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would indicate the carrying amount may be impaired. Impairment testing for goodwill is done at a reporting unit level, with all goodwill assigned to a reporting unit. Reporting units are one level below the business segment level, but are required to be combined when reporting units within the same segment have similar economic characteristics. 3M did not combine any of its reporting units for impairment testing. The impairment loss is measured as the amount by which the carrying value of the reporting unit's net assets exceeds its estimated fair value. The estimated fair value of a reporting unit is determined using earnings for the reporting unit multiplied by a price/earnings ratio for comparable industry groups, or by using a discounted cash flow analysis. Companies have the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the fair value of a reporting unit is not "more likely than not" less than its carrying amount, which is commonly referred to as "Step 0". 3M has chosen not to apply Step 0 for its annual goodwill assessments.

Intangible assets

Intangible asset types include customer related, patents, other technology-based, tradenames and other intangible assets acquired from an independent party. Intangible assets with a definite life are amortized over a period ranging from one to twenty years on a systematic and rational basis (generally straight line) that is representative of the asset's use. The estimated useful lives vary by category, with customer related largely between eight to seventeen years, patents largely between five to thirteen years, other technology-based largely between two to fifteen years, definite lived tradenames largely between three and twenty years, and other intangibles largely between two to ten years. Costs related to internally developed intangible assets, such as patents, are expensed as incurred, primarily in "Research, development and related expenses."

Intangible assets with a definite life are tested for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset (asset group) may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds the estimated undiscounted cash flows used in determining the fair value of the asset. The amount of the impairment loss recorded is calculated by the excess of the asset's carrying value over its fair value. Fair value is generally determined using a discounted cash flow analysis.

Intangible assets with an indefinite life, namely certain tradenames, are not amortized. Indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment annually, and are tested for impairment between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would indicate that the carrying amount may be impaired. An impairment loss generally would be recognized when the fair value is less than the carrying value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset.

Source: 3M Co., Annual Report

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Goodwill and Intangible Assets Disclosure

3M Co., Statement of Financial Position, Goodwill and Intangible Assets

USD $ in millions

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Customer related intangible assets
Patents
Other technology-based intangible assets
Definite-lived tradenames
Other amortizable intangible assets
Finite-lived intangible assets, gross carrying amount
Accumulated amortization
Finite-lived intangible assets, net
Non-amortizable intangible assets (primarily tradenames)
Acquired intangible assets
Goodwill
Goodwill and intangible assets

Source: Based on data from 3M Co. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Acquired intangible assets Sum of the carrying amounts of all intangible assets, excluding goodwill, as of the balance sheet date, net of accumulated amortization and impairment charges. 3M Co.'s acquired intangible assets declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 exceeding 2015 level.
Goodwill Carrying amount as of the balance sheet date, which is the cumulative amount paid and (if applicable) the fair value of any noncontrolling interest in the acquiree, adjusted for any amortization recognized prior to the adoption of any changes in generally accepted accounting principles (as applicable) and for any impairment charges, in excess of the fair value of net assets acquired in one or more business combination transactions. 3M Co.'s goodwill declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 exceeding 2015 level.
Goodwill and intangible assets Sum of the carrying amounts of all intangible assets, including goodwill, as of the balance sheet date, net of accumulated amortization and impairment charges. 3M Co.'s goodwill and intangible assets declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 exceeding 2015 level.

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Analyst Adjustments: Removal of Goodwill

3M Co., adjustments to financial data

USD $ in millions

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Adjustment to Total Assets
Total assets (as reported)
Less: Goodwill
Total assets (adjusted)
Adjustment to Total 3M Company Shareholders' Equity
Total 3M Company shareholders' equity (as reported)
Less: Goodwill
Total 3M Company shareholders' equity (adjusted)

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Adjusted Ratios: Removal of Goodwill (Summary)

3M Co., adjusted ratios

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Total Asset Turnover
Reported total asset turnover
Adjusted total asset turnover
Financial Leverage
Reported financial leverage
Adjusted financial leverage
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE % % % % %
Adjusted ROE % % % % %
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA % % % % %
Adjusted ROA % % % % %
Ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. 3M Co.'s adjusted total asset turnover deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
3M Co.'s adjusted financial leverage increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. 3M Co.'s adjusted ROE improved from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by adjusted total assets. 3M Co.'s adjusted ROA improved from 2015 to 2016 but then deteriorated significantly from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Total Asset Turnover

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net sales (USD $ in millions)
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
Total asset turnover1
Adjusted for Goodwill
Net sales (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total asset turnover2

2017 Calculations

1 Total asset turnover = Net sales ÷ Total assets
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted total asset turnover = Net sales ÷ Adjusted total assets
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. 3M Co.'s adjusted total asset turnover deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Financial Leverage

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
Total 3M Company shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Financial leverage1
Adjusted for Goodwill
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total 3M Company shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted financial leverage2

2017 Calculations

1 Financial leverage = Total assets ÷ Total 3M Company shareholders' equity
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted financial leverage = Adjusted total assets ÷ Adjusted total 3M Company shareholders' equity
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
3M Co.'s adjusted financial leverage increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income attributable to 3M (USD $ in millions)
Total 3M Company shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
ROE1 % % % % %
Adjusted for Goodwill
Net income attributable to 3M (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total 3M Company shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted ROE2 % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net income attributable to 3M ÷ Total 3M Company shareholders' equity
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Net income attributable to 3M ÷ Adjusted total 3M Company shareholders' equity
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. 3M Co.'s adjusted ROE improved from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income attributable to 3M (USD $ in millions)
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
ROA1 % % % % %
Adjusted for Goodwill
Net income attributable to 3M (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted ROA2 % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income attributable to 3M ÷ Total assets
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Net income attributable to 3M ÷ Adjusted total assets
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by adjusted total assets. 3M Co.'s adjusted ROA improved from 2015 to 2016 but then deteriorated significantly from 2016 to 2017.

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