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Income Tax Accounting Policy

The provision for income taxes is determined using the asset and liability approach. Under this approach, deferred income taxes represent the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amounts and tax basis of assets and liabilities. 3M records a valuation allowance to reduce its deferred tax assets when uncertainty regarding their realizability exists. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, 3M had valuation allowances of $81 million and $47 million on its deferred tax assets, respectively. The increase in valuation allowance at December 31, 2017 relates to certain U.S. and international jurisdictions with taxable loss or tax credit carryforwards that are expected to expire prior to utilization. 3M recognizes and measures its uncertain tax positions based on the rules under ASC 740, Income Taxes.

Source: 3M Co., Annual Report

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Income Tax Expense (Benefit)

3M Co., income tax expense (benefit), continuing operations

USD $ in millions

 
12 months ended Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Federal
State
International
Currently payable
Federal
State
International
Deferred
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) non-current transition tax provision
Provision for income taxes

Source: Based on data from 3M Co. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Currently payable The component of income tax expense for the period representing amounts of income taxes paid or payable (or refundable) for the period for all income tax obligations as determined by applying the provisions of relevant enacted tax laws to relevant amounts of taxable income (loss) from continuing operations. 3M Co.'s currently payable declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Deferred The component of income tax expense for the period representing the net change in the entity's deferred tax assets and liabilities pertaining to continuing operations. 3M Co.'s deferred increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Provision for income taxes The sum of the current income tax expense (benefit) and the deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to pretax income (loss) from continuing operations; income tax expense (benefit) may include interest and penalties on tax uncertainties based on the entity's accounting policy. 3M Co.'s provision for income taxes increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Effective Income Tax Rate (EITR)

3M Co., effective income tax rate (EITR) reconciliation

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Statutory U.S. tax rate % % % % %
State income taxes, net of federal benefit % % % % %
International income taxes, net % % % % %
U.S. TCJA, net impacts % % % % %
U.S. research and development credit % % % % %
Reserves for tax contingencies % % % % %
Domestic Manufacturer’s deduction % % % % %
Employee share-based payments % % % % %
All other, net % % % % %
Effective worldwide tax rate % % % % %

Source: Based on data from 3M Co. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Effective worldwide tax rate A ratio calculated by dividing the reported amount of income tax expense attributable to continuing operations for the period by GAAP-basis pretax income from continuing operations. 3M Co.'s effective worldwide tax rate declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 exceeding 2015 level.

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Components of Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities

3M Co., components of deferred tax assets and liabilities

USD $ in millions

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Employee benefit costs
Product and other claims
Miscellaneous accruals
Accruals not currently deductible
Pension costs
Stock-based compensation
Net operating/capital loss carryforwards
Foreign tax credits
Currency translation
Inventory
Gross deferred tax assets
Valuation allowance
Deferred tax assets
Product and other insurance receivables
Accelerated depreciation
Intangible amortization
Currency translation
Other
Deferred tax liabilities
Net deferred tax assets (liabilities)

Source: Based on data from 3M Co. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Gross deferred tax assets The sum of the tax effects as of the balance sheet date of the amounts of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws (before the valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such sum amount to net realizable value). Includes any tax benefit realized in deferred tax assets for significant impacts of tax planning strategies. 3M Co.'s gross deferred tax assets increased from 2015 to 2016 but then declined significantly from 2016 to 2017.
Deferred tax assets The aggregate tax effects as of the balance sheet date of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; net of deducting the allocated valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. 3M Co.'s deferred tax assets increased from 2015 to 2016 but then declined significantly from 2016 to 2017.
Net deferred tax assets (liabilities) For entities that net deferred tax assets and tax liabilities, represents the unclassified net amount of deferred tax assets and liabilities as of the balance sheet date, which result from applying the applicable enacted tax rate to net temporary differences and carryforwards pertaining to assets or liabilities. A temporary difference is a difference between the tax basis of an asset or liability and its carrying amount in the financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles that will reverse in ensuing periods. 3M Co.'s net deferred tax assets (liabilities) increased from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly declined from 2016 to 2017.

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Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities, Classification

3M Co., deferred tax assets and liabilities, classification

USD $ in millions

 

Source: Based on data from 3M Co. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Current deferred tax assets (included in Other current assets) The current portion of the aggregate tax effects as of the balance sheet date of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; after deducting the allocated valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. An unrecognized tax benefit that is directly related to a position taken in a tax year that results in a net operating loss carryforward should be presented as a reduction of the related deferred tax asset.
Noncurrent deferred tax assets (included in Other assets) The noncurrent portion as of the balance sheet date of the aggregate carrying amount of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; after the valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. 3M Co.'s noncurrent deferred tax assets (included in Other assets) declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 exceeding 2015 level.
Current deferred tax liabilities (included in Other current liabilities) Represents the current portion of deferred tax liabilities, which result from applying the applicable tax rate to net taxable temporary differences pertaining to each jurisdiction to which the entity is obligated to pay income tax. A current taxable temporary difference is a difference between the tax basis and the carrying amount of a current asset or liability in the financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. In a classified statement of financial position, an enterprise shall separate deferred tax liabilities and assets into a current amount and a noncurrent amount. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference.
Noncurrent deferred tax liabilities (included in Other liabilities) Represents the noncurrent portion of deferred tax liabilities, which result from applying the applicable tax rate to net taxable temporary differences pertaining to each jurisdiction to which the entity is obligated to pay income tax. A noncurrent taxable temporary difference is a difference between the tax basis and the carrying amount of a noncurrent asset or liability in the financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. In a classified statement of financial position, an enterprise shall separate deferred tax liabilities and assets into a current amount and a noncurrent amount. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. 3M Co.'s noncurrent deferred tax liabilities (included in Other liabilities) declined from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly increased from 2016 to 2017.

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Analyst Adjustments: Removal of Deferred Taxes

3M Co., adjustments to financial data

USD $ in millions

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Adjustment to Current Assets
Current assets (as reported)
Less: Current deferred tax assets, net
Current assets (adjusted)
Adjustment to Total Assets
Total assets (as reported)
Less: Current deferred tax assets, net
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax assets, net
Total assets (adjusted)
Adjustment to Current Liabilities
Current liabilities (as reported)
Less: Current deferred tax liabilities, net
Current liabilities (adjusted)
Adjustment to Total Liabilities
Total liabilities (as reported)
Less: Current deferred tax liabilities, net
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax liabilities, net
Total liabilities (adjusted)
Adjustment to Total 3M Company Shareholders' Equity
Total 3M Company shareholders' equity (as reported)
Less: Net deferred tax assets (liabilities)
Total 3M Company shareholders' equity (adjusted)
Adjustment to Net Income Attributable To 3M
Net income attributable to 3M (as reported)
Add: Deferred income tax expense (benefit)
Net income attributable to 3M (adjusted)

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Adjusted Ratios: Removal of Deferred Taxes (Summary)

3M Co., adjusted ratios

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Current Ratio
Reported current ratio
Adjusted current ratio
Net Profit Margin
Reported net profit margin % % % % %
Adjusted net profit margin % % % % %
Total Asset Turnover
Reported total asset turnover
Adjusted total asset turnover
Financial Leverage
Reported financial leverage
Adjusted financial leverage
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE % % % % %
Adjusted ROE % % % % %
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA % % % % %
Adjusted ROA % % % % %
Ratio Description The company
Adjusted current ratio A liquidity ratio calculated as adjusted current assets divided by adjusted current liabilities. 3M Co.'s adjusted current ratio improved from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly deteriorated from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. 3M Co.'s adjusted net profit margin improved from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 not reaching 2015 level.
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. 3M Co.'s adjusted total asset turnover deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
3M Co.'s adjusted financial leverage increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. 3M Co.'s adjusted ROE improved from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 not reaching 2015 level.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. 3M Co.'s adjusted ROA improved from 2015 to 2016 but then deteriorated significantly from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Current Ratio

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Current assets (USD $ in millions)
Current liabilities (USD $ in millions)
Current ratio1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted current assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted current liabilities (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted current ratio2

2017 Calculations

1 Current ratio = Current assets ÷ Current liabilities
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted current ratio = Adjusted current assets ÷ Adjusted current liabilities
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted current ratio A liquidity ratio calculated as adjusted current assets divided by adjusted current liabilities. 3M Co.'s adjusted current ratio improved from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly deteriorated from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Net Profit Margin

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income attributable to 3M (USD $ in millions)
Net sales (USD $ in millions)
Net profit margin1 % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income attributable to 3M (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted net profit margin2 % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 Net profit margin = 100 × Net income attributable to 3M ÷ Net sales
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted net profit margin = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to 3M ÷ Net sales
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. 3M Co.'s adjusted net profit margin improved from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 not reaching 2015 level.

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Adjusted Total Asset Turnover

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net sales (USD $ in millions)
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
Total asset turnover1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total asset turnover2

2017 Calculations

1 Total asset turnover = Net sales ÷ Total assets
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted total asset turnover = Net sales ÷ Adjusted total assets
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. 3M Co.'s adjusted total asset turnover deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Financial Leverage

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
Total 3M Company shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Financial leverage1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total 3M Company shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted financial leverage2

2017 Calculations

1 Financial leverage = Total assets ÷ Total 3M Company shareholders' equity
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted financial leverage = Adjusted total assets ÷ Adjusted total 3M Company shareholders' equity
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
3M Co.'s adjusted financial leverage increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income attributable to 3M (USD $ in millions)
Total 3M Company shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
ROE1 % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income attributable to 3M (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total 3M Company shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted ROE2 % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net income attributable to 3M ÷ Total 3M Company shareholders' equity
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to 3M ÷ Adjusted total 3M Company shareholders' equity
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. 3M Co.'s adjusted ROE improved from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 not reaching 2015 level.

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Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income attributable to 3M (USD $ in millions)
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
ROA1 % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income attributable to 3M (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted ROA2 % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income attributable to 3M ÷ Total assets
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to 3M ÷ Adjusted total assets
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. 3M Co.'s adjusted ROA improved from 2015 to 2016 but then deteriorated significantly from 2016 to 2017.

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