Analysis of Revenues
Accounting Policy on Revenue Recognition
Emerson is a global manufacturer that combines technology and engineering to provide innovative solutions to its customers, largely in the form of tangible products. Emerson evaluates its contracts with customers to identify the promised goods or services and recognizes revenue for the identified performance obligations at the amount Emerson expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to a customer. Revenue is recognized when, or as, performance obligations are satisfied and control has transferred to the customer, typically when products are shipped or delivered, title and risk of loss pass to the customer, and Emerson has a present right to payment. The vast majority of Emerson’s revenues relate to a broad offering of manufactured products which are recognized at the point in time when control transfers, generally in accordance with shipping terms. A portion of Emerson’s revenues relate to the sale of software and post-contract customer support, parts and labor for repairs, and engineering services. In limited circumstances, contracts include multiple performance obligations, where revenue is recognized separately for each good or service, as well as contracts where revenue is recognized over time as control transfers to the customer.
Revenue is recognized over time for approximately 5 percent of Emerson’s revenues. These contracts largely relate to projects in the Process Control Systems & Solutions product offering within the Automation Solutions segment where revenue is recognized using the percentage-of-completion method to reflect the transfer of control over time, while a small amount is attributable to long-term maintenance and service contracts where revenue is typically recognized on a straight-line basis as the services are provided. Approximately 5 percent of revenues relate to sales arrangements with multiple performance obligations, principally in the Automation Solutions segment. Tangible products represent a large majority of the delivered items in contracts with multiple performance obligations or where revenue is recognized over time, while a smaller portion is attributable to installation, service and maintenance.
For revenues recognized over time, Emerson typically uses an input method to determine progress and recognize revenue, based on costs incurred. Emerson believes costs incurred closely correspond with its performance under the contract and the transfer of control to the customer.
In sales arrangements that involve multiple performance obligations, revenue is allocated based on the relative standalone selling price for each performance obligation. Observable selling prices from actual transactions are used whenever possible. In other instances, Emerson determines the standalone selling price based on third-party pricing or management’s best estimate. Generally, contract duration is short-term, and cancellation, termination or refund provisions apply only in the event of contract breach and are rarely invoked.
Payment terms vary but are generally short-term in nature. Emerson’s long-term contracts, where revenue is generally recognized over time, are typically billed as work progresses in accordance with the contract terms and conditions, either at periodic intervals or upon achievement of certain milestones. The timing of revenue recognition and billings under these contracts results in either unbilled receivables (contract assets) when revenue recognized exceeds billings, or customer advances (contract liabilities) when billings exceed revenue recognized. Unbilled receivables are reclassified to accounts receivable when an unconditional right to consideration exists, typically when a milestone in the contract is achieved. Emerson does not evaluate whether the transaction price includes a significant financing component for contracts where the time between cash collection and performance is less than one year.
Certain arrangements with customers include variable consideration, typically in the form of rebates, cash discounts or penalties. In limited circumstances, Emerson sells products with a general right of return. In most instances, returns are limited to product quality issues. Emerson records a reduction to revenue at the time of sale to reflect the ultimate amount of consideration it expects to receive. Emerson’s estimates are updated quarterly based on historical experience, trend analysis, and expected market conditions. Variable consideration is typically not constrained at the time revenue is recognized.
Source: 10-K (filing date: 2019-11-18).
Revenues as Reported
Emerson Electric Co., Income Statement, Revenues
US$ in millions
Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-11-18), 10-K (filing date: 2018-11-19), 10-K (filing date: 2017-11-20), 10-K (filing date: 2016-11-16), 10-K (filing date: 2015-11-18), 10-K (filing date: 2014-11-19).
|Sales||Amount of revenue recognized from goods sold, services rendered, insurance premiums, or other activities that constitute an earning process. Includes, but is not limited to, investment and interest income before deduction of interest expense when recognized as a component of revenue, and sales and trading gain (loss).||Emerson Electric Co.’s sales increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.|