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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

Raytheon Co. (NYSE:RTN)


Economic Value Added (EVA)

Advanced level

EVA is registered trademark of Stern Stewart.

Economic value added or economic profit is the difference between revenues and costs,where costs include not only expenses, but also cost of capital.


Economic Profit

Raytheon Co., economic profit calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)1
Cost of capital2
Invested capital3
 
Economic profit4

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-12), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-13), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-15), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-10).

1 NOPAT. See details »

2 Cost of capital. See details »

3 Invested capital. See details »

4 2019 Calculation
Economic profit = NOPAT – Cost of capital × Invested capital
= × =

Item Description The company
Economic profit Economic profit is a measure of corporate performance computed by taking the spread between the return on invested capital and the cost of capital, and multiplying by the invested capital. Raytheon Co.’s economic profit increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Net Operating Profit after Taxes (NOPAT)

Raytheon Co., NOPAT calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Net income attributable to Raytheon Company
Deferred income tax expense (benefit)1
Increase (decrease) in allowance for doubtful accounts2
Increase (decrease) in equity equivalents3
Interest expense
Interest expense, operating lease liability4
Adjusted interest expense
Tax benefit of interest expense5
Adjusted interest expense, after taxes6
Interest income
Investment income, before taxes
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income7
Investment income, after taxes8
(Income) loss from discontinued operations, net of tax9
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-12), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-13), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-15), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-10).

1 Elimination of deferred tax expense. See details »

2 Addition of increase (decrease) in allowance for doubtful accounts.

3 Addition of increase (decrease) in equity equivalents to net income attributable to Raytheon Company.

4 2019 Calculation
Interest expense on capitalized operating leases = Operating lease liability × Discount rate
= × =

5 2019 Calculation
Tax benefit of interest expense = Adjusted interest expense × Statutory income tax rate
= × 21.00% =

6 Addition of after taxes interest expense to net income attributable to Raytheon Company.

7 2019 Calculation
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income = Investment income, before tax × Statutory income tax rate
= × 21.00% =

8 Elimination of after taxes investment income.

9 Elimination of discontinued operations.

Item Description The company
NOPAT Net operating profit after taxes is income from operations, but after removement of taxes calculated on cash basis that are relevant to operating income. Raytheon Co.’s NOPAT increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Cash Operating Taxes

Raytheon Co., cash operating taxes calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Provision for federal and foreign income taxes
Less: Deferred income tax expense (benefit)
Add: Tax savings from interest expense
Less: Tax imposed on investment income
Cash operating taxes

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-12), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-13), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-15), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-10).

Item Description The company
Cash operating taxes Cash operating taxes are estimated by adjusting income tax expense for changes in deferred taxes and tax benefit from the interest deduction. Raytheon Co.’s cash operating taxes decreased from 2017 to 2018 but then increased from 2018 to 2019 not reaching 2017 level.

Invested Capital

Raytheon Co., invested capital calculation (financing approach)

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Commercial paper and current portion of long-term debt
Long-term debt, excluding current portion
Operating lease liability1
Total reported debt & leases
Total Raytheon Company stockholders’ equity
Net deferred tax (assets) liabilities2
Allowance for doubtful accounts3
Equity equivalents4
Accumulated other comprehensive (income) loss, net of tax5
Redeemable noncontrolling interests
Noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries
Adjusted total Raytheon Company stockholders’ equity
Short-term investments6
Invested capital

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-12), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-13), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-15), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-10).

1 Addition of capitalized operating leases.

2 Elimination of deferred taxes from assets and liabilities. See details »

3 Addition of allowance for doubtful accounts receivable.

4 Addition of equity equivalents to total Raytheon Company stockholders’ equity.

5 Removal of accumulated other comprehensive income.

6 Subtraction of short-term investments.

Item Description The company
Invested capital Capital is an approximation of the economic book value of all cash invested in going-concern business activities. Raytheon Co.’s invested capital increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Cost of Capital

Raytheon Co., cost of capital calculations

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Commercial paper and long-term debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-12).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Commercial paper and long-term debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Commercial paper and long-term debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-13).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Commercial paper and long-term debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Commercial paper and long-term debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Commercial paper and long-term debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Commercial paper and long-term debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-15).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Commercial paper and long-term debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Commercial paper and long-term debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-10).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Commercial paper and long-term debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »


Economic Spread Ratio

Raytheon Co., economic spread ratio calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Economic profit1
Invested capital2
Performance Ratio
Economic spread ratio3

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-12), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-13), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-15), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-10).

1 Economic profit. See details »

2 Invested capital. See details »

3 2019 Calculation
Economic spread ratio = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Invested capital
= 100 × ÷ =

Performance ratio Description The company
Economic spread ratio The ratio of economic profit to invested capital, also equal to the difference between return on invested capital (ROIC) and cost of capital. Raytheon Co.’s economic spread ratio improved from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Economic Profit Margin

Raytheon Co., economic profit margin calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Economic profit1
Net sales
Performance Ratio
Economic profit margin2

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-12), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-13), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-15), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-10).

1 Economic profit. See details »

2 2019 Calculation
Economic profit margin = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Net sales
= 100 × ÷ =

Performance ratio Description The company
Economic profit margin The ratio of economic profit to sales. It is the company’s profit margin covering income efficiency and asset management. Economic profit margin is not biased in favor of capital-intensive business models, because any added capital is a cost to the economic profit margin. Raytheon Co.’s economic profit margin improved from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.