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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

Facebook Inc. (NASDAQ:FB)


Analysis of Property, Plant and Equipment

Advanced level


Accounting Policy on Property, Plant and Equipment

Property and equipment, which includes amounts recorded under finance leases, are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets or the remaining lease term, whichever is shorter.

The estimated useful lives of property and equipment are described below:

Property and Equipment Useful Life
Network equipment Three to 20 years
Buildings Three to 30 years
Computer software, office equipment and other Two to five years
Finance lease right-of-use assets Three to 20 years
Leasehold improvements Lesser of estimated useful life or remaining lease term

The useful lives of Facebook’s property and equipment are determined by management when those assets are initially recognized and are routinely reviewed for the remaining estimated useful lives. Facebook’s current estimate of useful lives represents the best estimate of the useful lives based on current facts and circumstances, but may differ from the actual useful lives due to changes in future circumstances such as changes to the business operations, changes in the planned use of assets, and technological advancements. When Facebook changes the estimated useful life assumption for any asset, the remaining carrying amount of the asset is accounted for prospectively and depreciated or amortized over the revised estimated useful life. Historically changes in useful lives have not resulted in material changes to Facebook’s depreciation and amortization expense.

Land and assets held within construction in progress are not depreciated. Construction in progress is related to the construction or development of property and equipment that have not yet been placed in service for their intended use.

The cost of maintenance and repairs is expensed as incurred. When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from their respective accounts, and any gain or loss on such sale or disposal is reflected in income from operations.

Source: 10-K (filing date: 2020-01-30).


Property, Plant and Equipment Disclosure

Facebook Inc., balance sheet: property, plant and equipment

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Land
Buildings
Leasehold improvements
Network equipment
Computer software, office equipment and other
Finance lease right-of-use assets
Construction in progress
Property and equipment, gross
Accumulated depreciation
Property and equipment, net

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-01-30), 10-K (filing date: 2019-01-31), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-01), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-03), 10-K (filing date: 2016-01-28).

Item Description The company
Property and equipment, gross Amount before accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization of physical assets used in the normal conduct of business and not intended for resale. Examples include, but are not limited to, land, buildings, machinery and equipment, office equipment, and furniture and fixtures. Facebook Inc.’s property and equipment, gross increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.
Property and equipment, net Amount after accumulated depreciation, depletion and amortization of physical assets used in the normal conduct of business to produce goods and services and not intended for resale. Examples include, but are not limited to, land, buildings, machinery and equipment, office equipment, and furniture and fixtures. Facebook Inc.’s property and equipment, net increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Asset Age Ratios (Summary)

Facebook Inc., asset age ratios

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Average age ratio
Estimated total useful life (years)
Estimated age, time elapsed since purchase (years)
Estimated remaining life (years)

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-01-30), 10-K (filing date: 2019-01-31), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-01), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-03), 10-K (filing date: 2016-01-28).

Asset age ratio Description The company
Average age ratio As long as straight-line depreciation is used, this is an accurate estimate of asset age as a percentage of depreciable life. The relative age is a useful measure of whether the company’s fixed asset base is old or new. Newer assets are likely to be more efficient. Facebook Inc.’s average age ratio of depreciable property, plant and equipment improved from 2017 to 2018 but then slightly deteriorated from 2018 to 2019.
Estimated total useful life Over longer time periods, this ratio is a useful measure of company’s depreciation policy and can be used for comparisons with competitors. Facebook Inc.’s estimated total useful life of depreciable property, plant and equipment increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.
Estimated time elapsed since purchase The approximate age in years of a company’s fixed assets. Useful for comparison purposes. Facebook Inc.’s estimated time elapsed since purchase of depreciable property, plant and equipment improved from 2017 to 2018 but then deteriorated significantly from 2018 to 2019.
Estimated remaining life Facebook Inc.’s estimated remaining life of depreciable property, plant and equipment increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Average Age

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Accumulated depreciation
Property and equipment, gross
Land
Asset Age Ratio
Average age1

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-01-30), 10-K (filing date: 2019-01-31), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-01), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-03), 10-K (filing date: 2016-01-28).

2019 Calculations

1 Average age = 100 × Accumulated depreciation ÷ (Property and equipment, gross – Land)
= 100 × ÷ () =

Asset age ratio Description The company
Average age As long as straight-line depreciation is used, this is an accurate estimate of asset age as a percentage of depreciable life. The relative age is a useful measure of whether the company’s fixed asset base is old or new. Newer assets are likely to be more efficient. Facebook Inc.’s average age ratio of depreciable property, plant and equipment improved from 2017 to 2018 but then slightly deteriorated from 2018 to 2019.

Estimated Total Useful Life

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Property and equipment, gross
Land
Depreciation expense on property and equipment
Asset Age Ratio (Years)
Estimated total useful life1

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-01-30), 10-K (filing date: 2019-01-31), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-01), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-03), 10-K (filing date: 2016-01-28).

2019 Calculations

1 Estimated total useful life = (Property and equipment, gross – Land) ÷ Depreciation expense on property and equipment
= () ÷ =

Asset age ratio Description The company
Estimated total useful life Over longer time periods, this ratio is a useful measure of company’s depreciation policy and can be used for comparisons with competitors. Facebook Inc.’s estimated total useful life of depreciable property, plant and equipment increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Estimated Age, Time Elapsed since Purchase

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Accumulated depreciation
Depreciation expense on property and equipment
Asset Age Ratio (Years)
Time elapsed since purchase1

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-01-30), 10-K (filing date: 2019-01-31), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-01), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-03), 10-K (filing date: 2016-01-28).

2019 Calculations

1 Time elapsed since purchase = Accumulated depreciation ÷ Depreciation expense on property and equipment
= ÷ =

Asset age ratio Description The company
Estimated time elapsed since purchase The approximate age in years of a company’s fixed assets. Useful for comparison purposes. Facebook Inc.’s estimated time elapsed since purchase of depreciable property, plant and equipment improved from 2017 to 2018 but then deteriorated significantly from 2018 to 2019.

Estimated Remaining Life

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Property and equipment, net
Land
Depreciation expense on property and equipment
Asset Age Ratio (Years)
Estimated remaining life1

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-01-30), 10-K (filing date: 2019-01-31), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-01), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-03), 10-K (filing date: 2016-01-28).

2019 Calculations

1 Estimated remaining life = (Property and equipment, net – Land) ÷ Depreciation expense on property and equipment
= () ÷ =

Asset age ratio Description The company
Estimated remaining life Facebook Inc.’s estimated remaining life of depreciable property, plant and equipment increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.