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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

CVS Health Corp. (NYSE:CVS)


Economic Value Added (EVA)

Advanced level

EVA is registered trademark of Stern Stewart.

Economic value added or economic profit is the difference between revenues and costs,where costs include not only expenses, but also cost of capital.


Economic Profit

CVS Health Corp., economic profit calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)1
Cost of capital2
Invested capital3
 
Economic profit4

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-18), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-09).

1 NOPAT. See details »

2 Cost of capital. See details »

3 Invested capital. See details »

4 2019 Calculation
Economic profit = NOPAT – Cost of capital × Invested capital
= × =

Item Description The company
Economic profit Economic profit is a measure of corporate performance computed by taking the spread between the return on invested capital and the cost of capital, and multiplying by the invested capital. CVS Health Corp.’s economic profit decreased from 2017 to 2018 but then increased from 2018 to 2019 not reaching 2017 level.

Net Operating Profit after Taxes (NOPAT)

CVS Health Corp., NOPAT calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health
Deferred income tax expense (benefit)1
Increase (decrease) in allowance for doubtful accounts receivable2
Increase (decrease) in equity equivalents3
Interest expense
Interest expense, operating lease liability4
Adjusted interest expense
Tax benefit of interest expense5
Adjusted interest expense, after taxes6
Net investment income
Investment income, before taxes
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income7
Investment income, after taxes8
(Income) loss from discontinued operations, net of tax9
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-18), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-09).

1 Elimination of deferred tax expense. See details »

2 Addition of increase (decrease) in allowance for doubtful accounts receivable.

3 Addition of increase (decrease) in equity equivalents to net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health.

4 2019 Calculation
Interest expense on capitalized operating leases = Operating lease liability × Discount rate
= × =

5 2019 Calculation
Tax benefit of interest expense = Adjusted interest expense × Statutory income tax rate
= × 21.00% =

6 Addition of after taxes interest expense to net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health.

7 2019 Calculation
Tax expense (benefit) of investment income = Investment income, before tax × Statutory income tax rate
= × 21.00% =

8 Elimination of after taxes investment income.

9 Elimination of discontinued operations.

Item Description The company
NOPAT Net operating profit after taxes is income from operations, but after removement of taxes calculated on cash basis that are relevant to operating income. CVS Health Corp.’s NOPAT decreased from 2017 to 2018 but then increased from 2018 to 2019 exceeding 2017 level.

Cash Operating Taxes

CVS Health Corp., cash operating taxes calculation

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Income tax provision for continuing operations
Less: Deferred income tax expense (benefit)
Add: Tax savings from interest expense
Less: Tax imposed on investment income
Cash operating taxes

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-18), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-09).

Item Description The company
Cash operating taxes Cash operating taxes are estimated by adjusting income tax expense for changes in deferred taxes and tax benefit from the interest deduction. CVS Health Corp.’s cash operating taxes decreased from 2017 to 2018 but then increased from 2018 to 2019 not reaching 2017 level.

Invested Capital

CVS Health Corp., invested capital calculation (financing approach)

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Short-term debt
Current portion of long-term debt
Long-term debt, excluding current portion
Operating lease liability1
Total reported debt & leases
Total CVS Health shareholders’ equity
Net deferred tax (assets) liabilities2
Allowance for doubtful accounts receivable3
Equity equivalents4
Accumulated other comprehensive (income) loss, net of tax5
Redeemable noncontrolling interest
Noncontrolling interests
Adjusted total CVS Health shareholders’ equity
Investments6
Invested capital

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-18), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-09).

1 Addition of capitalized operating leases.

2 Elimination of deferred taxes from assets and liabilities. See details »

3 Addition of allowance for doubtful accounts receivable.

4 Addition of equity equivalents to total CVS Health shareholders’ equity.

5 Removal of accumulated other comprehensive income.

6 Subtraction of investments.

Item Description The company
Invested capital Capital is an approximation of the economic book value of all cash invested in going-concern business activities. CVS Health Corp.’s invested capital increased from 2017 to 2018 and from 2018 to 2019.

Cost of Capital

CVS Health Corp., cost of capital calculations

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-18).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 21.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-28).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-09).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »

Capital (fair value)1 Weights Cost of capital
Equity2 ÷ = × =
Debt3 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Operating lease liability4 ÷ = × × (1 – 35.00%) =
Total:

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-09).

1 US$ in millions

2 Equity. See details »

3 Debt. See details »

4 Operating lease liability. See details »


Economic Spread Ratio

CVS Health Corp., economic spread ratio calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Economic profit1
Invested capital2
Performance Ratio
Economic spread ratio3

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-18), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-09).

1 Economic profit. See details »

2 Invested capital. See details »

3 2019 Calculation
Economic spread ratio = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Invested capital
= 100 × ÷ =

Performance ratio Description The company
Economic spread ratio The ratio of economic profit to invested capital, also equal to the difference between return on invested capital (ROIC) and cost of capital. CVS Health Corp.’s economic spread ratio deteriorated from 2017 to 2018 but then improved from 2018 to 2019 not reaching 2017 level.

Economic Profit Margin

CVS Health Corp., economic profit margin calculation

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Economic profit1
Revenues from customers
Performance Ratio
Economic profit margin2

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-18), 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-09).

1 Economic profit. See details »

2 2019 Calculation
Economic profit margin = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Revenues from customers
= 100 × ÷ =

Performance ratio Description The company
Economic profit margin The ratio of economic profit to sales. It is the company’s profit margin covering income efficiency and asset management. Economic profit margin is not biased in favor of capital-intensive business models, because any added capital is a cost to the economic profit margin. CVS Health Corp.’s economic profit margin deteriorated from 2017 to 2018 but then improved from 2018 to 2019 not reaching 2017 level.