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Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc

CVS Health Corp. (CVS)


Analysis of Investments

Difficulty: Advanced


Investment Accounting Policy

Debt Securities

Debt securities consist primarily of United States Treasury and agency securities, mortgage-backed securities, corporate and foreign bonds and other debt securities. Debt securities are classified as either current or long-term investments based on their contractual maturities unless CVS Health intends to sell an investment within the next twelve months, in which case it is classified as current within the consolidated balance sheets. Debt securities are classified as available for sale and are carried at fair value.

The cost for mortgage-backed and other asset-backed securities is adjusted for unamortized premiums and discounts, which are amortized using the interest method over the estimated remaining term of the securities, adjusted for anticipated prepayments.

Debt securities are regularly reviewed to determine whether a decline in fair value below the cost basis or carrying value is other-than-temporary. When a debt security is in an unrealized capital loss position, CVS Health monitors the duration and severity of the loss to determine if sufficient market recovery can occur within a reasonable period of time. If a decline in the fair value of a debt security is considered other-than-temporary, the cost basis or carrying value of the debt security is written down. The write-down is then bifurcated into its credit and non-credit related components. The amount of the credit-related component is included in net income, and the amount of the non-credit related component is included in other comprehensive income/loss, unless CVS Health intends to sell the debt security or it is more likely than not that CVS Health will be required to sell the debt security prior to its anticipated recovery of the debt security’s amortized cost basis. Interest is not accrued on debt securities when management believes the collection of interest is unlikely.

Equity Securities

Equity securities with readily available fair values are measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income.

Mortgage Loans

Mortgage loan investments on the consolidated balance sheets are valued at the unpaid principal balance, net of impairment reserves. A mortgage loan may be impaired when it is a problem loan (i.e., more than 60 days delinquent, in bankruptcy or in process of foreclosure), a potential problem loan (i.e., high probability of default) or a restructured loan. For impaired loans, a specific impairment reserve is established for the difference between the recorded investment in the loan and the estimated fair value of the collateral. CVS Health applies its loan impairment policy individually to all loans in its portfolio.

The impairment evaluation described above also considers characteristics and risk factors attributable to the aggregate portfolio. An additional allowance for loan losses is established if it is probable that there will be a credit loss on a group of similar mortgage loans. The following characteristics and risk factors are considered when evaluating if a credit loss is probable on a group of similar mortgage loans: loan-to-value ratios, property type (e.g., office, retail, apartment, industrial), geographic location, vacancy rates and property condition.

Full or partial impairments of loans are recorded at the time an event occurs affecting the legal status of the loan, typically at the time of foreclosure or upon a loan modification giving rise to forgiveness of debt. Interest income on a potential problem loan or restructured loan is accrued to the extent it is deemed to be collectible and the loan continues to perform under its original or restructured terms. Interest income on problem loans is recognized on a cash basis. Cash payments on loans in the process of foreclosure are treated as a return of principal. Mortgage loans with a maturity date or a committed prepayment date within twelve months are classified as current on the consolidated balance sheets.

Other Investments

Other investments consist primarily of the following:

  • Private equity and hedge fund limited partnerships are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. Under this method, the carrying value of the investments are based on the value of CVS Health’s equity ownership of the underlying investment funds provided by the general partner or manager of the investments, the financial statements of which generally are audited. As a result of the timing of the receipt of the valuation information provided by the fund managers, these investments are generally reported on up to a three month lag. CVS Health reviews investments for impairment at least quarterly and monitors their performance throughout the year through discussions with the administrators, managers and/or general partners. If CVS Health becomes aware of an impairment of a limited partnership’s investments through its review or prior to receiving the limited partnership’s financial statements at the financial statement date, an impairment will be recognized by recording a reduction in the carrying value of the limited partnership with a corresponding charge to net investment income.
  • Investment real estate, which is carried on the consolidated balance sheets at depreciated cost, including capital additions, net of write-downs for other-than-temporary declines in fair value. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method based on the estimated useful life of each asset. If any real estate investment is considered held-for-sale, it is carried at the lower of its carrying value or fair value less estimated selling costs. CVS Health generally estimates fair value using a discounted future cash flow analysis in conjunction with comparable sales information. At the time of the sale, the difference between the sales price and the carrying value is recorded as a realized capital gain or loss.
  • Privately-placed equity securities, which are carried on the consolidated balance sheets at cost less impairments, plus or minus subsequent adjustments for observable price changes. Additionally, as a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston (“FHLBB”), a subsidiary of CVS Health is required to purchase and hold shares of the FHLBB. These shares are restricted and carried at cost.

Net Investment Income

Net investment income on CVS Health’s investments is recorded when earned and is reflected in net income in the consolidated results of operations (other than net investment income on assets supporting experience-rated products). Experience-rated products are products in the large case pensions business where the contract holder, not CVS Health, assumes investment and other risks, subject to, among other things, minimum guarantees provided by CVS Health. The effect of investment performance on experience-rated products is allocated to contract holders’ accounts daily, based on the underlying investment experience and, therefore, does not impact CVS Health’s net income in the consolidated results of operations (as long as the contract’s minimum guarantees are not triggered). Net investment income on assets supporting large case pensions’ experience-rated products is included in net investment income in the consolidated statements of operations and is credited to contract holders’ accounts through a charge to benefit costs.

Realized capital gains and losses on investments (other than realized capital gains and losses on investments supporting experience-rated products) are included as a component of net investment income in the consolidated statements of operations. Realized capital gains and losses are determined on a specific identification basis. Purchases and sales of debt and equity securities and alternative investments are reflected on the trade date. Purchases and sales of mortgage loans and investment real estate are reflected on the closing date.

Realized capital gains and losses on investments supporting large case pensions’ experience-rated products are not included in realized capital gains and losses in the consolidated statements of operations and instead are credited directly to contract holders’ accounts. The contract holders’ accounts are reflected in policyholders’ funds on the consolidated balance sheets.

Unrealized capital gains and losses on investments (other than unrealized capital gains and losses on investments supporting experience-rated products) are reflected in shareholders’ equity, net of tax, as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income. Unrealized capital gains and losses on investments supporting large case pensions’ experience-rated products are credited directly to contract holders’ accounts, which are reflected in policyholders’ funds on the consolidated balance sheets.

Source: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-28).


Adjustment to Net Income (Loss): Mark to Market Available-for-sale Securities

CVS Health Corp., adjustment to Net Income (loss) Attributable To CVS Health

US$ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
12 months ended Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Add: Net unrealized investment gains (losses) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-10).


Adjusted Ratios: Mark to Market Available-for-sale Securities (Summary)

CVS Health Corp., adjusted ratios

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
Net Profit Margin
Reported net profit margin hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted net profit margin hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted ROE hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted ROA hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-10).

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by revenue. CVS Health Corp.’s adjusted net profit margin improved from 2016 to 2017 but then deteriorated significantly from 2017 to 2018.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by shareholders’ equity. CVS Health Corp.’s adjusted ROE improved from 2016 to 2017 but then deteriorated significantly from 2017 to 2018.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by total assets. CVS Health Corp.’s adjusted ROA improved from 2016 to 2017 but then deteriorated significantly from 2017 to 2018.

CVS Health Corp., Ratios: Reported vs. Adjusted


Adjusted Net Profit Margin

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Revenues from customers hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Net profit margin1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted: Mark to Market Available-for-sale Securities
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Adjusted net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Revenues from customers hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted net profit margin2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-10).

2018 Calculations

1 Net profit margin = 100 × Net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health ÷ Revenues from customers
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted net profit margin = 100 × Adjusted net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health ÷ Revenues from customers
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by revenue. CVS Health Corp.’s adjusted net profit margin improved from 2016 to 2017 but then deteriorated significantly from 2017 to 2018.

Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total CVS Health shareholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
ROE1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted: Mark to Market Available-for-sale Securities
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Adjusted net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total CVS Health shareholders’ equity hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted ROE2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-10).

2018 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health ÷ Total CVS Health shareholders’ equity
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Adjusted net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health ÷ Total CVS Health shareholders’ equity
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by shareholders’ equity. CVS Health Corp.’s adjusted ROE improved from 2016 to 2017 but then deteriorated significantly from 2017 to 2018.

Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
ROA1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted: Mark to Market Available-for-sale Securities
Selected Financial Data (US$ in millions)
Adjusted net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted ROA2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2019-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-14), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2016-02-09), 10-K (filing date: 2015-02-10).

2018 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health ÷ Total assets
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Adjusted net income (loss) attributable to CVS Health ÷ Total assets
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by total assets. CVS Health Corp.’s adjusted ROA improved from 2016 to 2017 but then deteriorated significantly from 2017 to 2018.