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Analysis of Revenues
Revenue Recognition Accounting Policy
Pharmacy Services Segment
The PSS sells prescription drugs directly through its mail service dispensing pharmacies and indirectly through its retail pharmacy network. The PSS recognizes revenue from prescription drugs sold by its mail service dispensing pharmacies and under retail pharmacy network contracts where it is the principal using the gross method at the contract prices negotiated with its clients. Net revenues include: (i) the portion of the price the client pays directly to the PSS, net of any volume-related or other discounts paid back to the client, (ii) the price paid to the PSS by client plan members for mail order prescriptions ("Mail Co-Payments") and the price paid to retail network pharmacies by client plan members for retail prescriptions ("Retail Co-Payments"), and (iii) administrative fees for retail pharmacy network contracts where the PSS is not the principal as discussed below. Sales taxes are not included in revenue.
Revenue is recognized when: (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (ii) delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, (iii) the seller's price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, and (iv) collectability is reasonably assured. The following revenue recognition policies have been established for the PSS:
- Revenues generated from prescription drugs sold by mail service dispensing pharmacies are recognized when the prescription is delivered. At the time of delivery, the PSS has performed substantially all of its obligations under its client contracts and does not experience a significant level of returns or reshipments.
- Revenues generated from prescription drugs sold by third party pharmacies in the PSS' retail pharmacy network and associated administrative fees are recognized at the PSS' point-of-sale, which is when the claim is adjudicated by the PSS online claims processing system.
The PSS determines whether it is the principal or agent for its retail pharmacy network transactions on a contract by contract basis. In the majority of its contracts, the PSS has determined it is the principal due to it: (i) being the primary obligor in the arrangement, (ii) having latitude in establishing the price, changing the product or performing part of the service, (iii) having discretion in supplier selection, (iv) having involvement in the determination of product or service specifications, and (v) having credit risk. The PSS' obligations under its client contracts for which revenues are reported using the gross method are separate and distinct from its obligations to the third party pharmacies included in its retail pharmacy network contracts. Pursuant to these contracts, the PSS is contractually required to pay the third party pharmacies in its retail pharmacy network for products sold, regardless of whether the PSS is paid by its clients. The PSS' responsibilities under its client contracts typically include validating eligibility and coverage levels, communicating the prescription price and the co-payments due to the third party retail pharmacy, identifying possible adverse drug interactions for the pharmacist to address with the prescriber prior to dispensing, suggesting generic alternatives where clinically appropriate and approving the prescription for dispensing. Although the PSS does not have credit risk with respect to Retail Co-Payments or inventory risk related to retail network claims, management believes that all of the other applicable indicators of gross revenue reporting are present. For contracts under which the PSS acts as an agent, revenue is recognized using the net method.
Drug Discounts - The PSS deducts from its revenues any rebates, inclusive of discounts and fees, earned by its clients. Rebates are paid to clients in accordance with the terms of client contracts, which are normally based on fixed rebates per prescription for specific products dispensed or a percentage of manufacturer discounts received for specific products dispensed. The liability for rebates due to clients is included in "Claims and discounts payable" in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
Medicare Part D - The PSS, through its SilverScript subsidiary, participates in the federal government's Medicare Part D program as a Prescription Drug Plan ("PDP"). Net revenues include insurance premiums earned by the PDP, which are determined based on the PDP's annual bid and related contractual arrangements with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services ("CMS"). The insurance premiums include a direct premium paid by CMS and a beneficiary premium, which is the responsibility of the PDP member, but which is subsidized by CMS in the case of low-income members. Premiums collected in advance are initially deferred in accrued expenses and are then recognized in net revenues over the period in which members are entitled to receive benefits.
In addition to these premiums, net revenues include co-payments, coverage gap benefits, deductibles and co-insurance (collectively, the "Member Co-Payments") related to PDP members' actual prescription claims. In certain cases, CMS subsidizes a portion of these Member Co-Payments and pays the PSS an estimated prospective Member Co-Payment subsidy amount each month. The prospective Member Co-Payment subsidy amounts received from CMS are also included in net revenues. SilverScript assumes no risk for these amounts. If the prospective Member Co-Payment subsidies received differ from the amounts based on actual prescription claims, the difference is recorded in either accounts receivable or accrued expenses.
The PSS accounts for CMS obligations and Member Co-Payments (including the amounts subsidized by CMS) using the gross method consistent with its revenue recognition policies for Mail Co-Payments and Retail Co-Payments (discussed previously in this document).
Retail Pharmacy - The retail drugstores recognize revenue at the time the customer takes possession of the merchandise. Customer returns are not material. Revenue generated from the performance of services in the RLS' health care clinics is recognized at the time the services are performed. Sales taxes are not included in revenue.
Long-term Care - Revenue is recognized when products are delivered or services are rendered or provided to the customer, prices are fixed and determinable, and collection is reasonably assured. A significant portion of the revenues from sales of pharmaceutical and medical products are reimbursed by the federal Medicare Part D program and, to a lesser extent, state Medicaid programs. Payments for services rendered to patients covered by these programs are generally less than billed charges. CVS Health monitors its revenues and receivables from these reimbursement sources, as well as other third party insurance payors, and record an estimated contractual allowance for sales and receivable balances at the revenue recognition date, to properly account for anticipated differences between billed and reimbursed amounts. Accordingly, the total net sales and receivables reported in CVS Health's consolidated financial statements are recorded at the amount expected to be ultimately received from these payors. Since billing functions for a portion of CVS Health's revenue systems are largely computerized, enabling on-line adjudication at the time of sale to record net revenues, CVS Health's exposure in connection with estimating contractual allowance adjustments is limited primarily to unbilled and initially rejected Medicare, Medicaid and third party claims (typically approved for reimbursement once additional information is provided to the payor). For the remaining portion of CVS Health's revenue systems, the contractual allowance is estimated for all billed, unbilled and initially rejected Medicare, Medicaid and third party claims. CVS Health evaluates several criteria in developing the estimated contractual allowances on a monthly basis, including historical trends based on actual claims paid, current contract and reimbursement terms, and changes in customer base and payor/product mix. Contractual allowance estimates are adjusted to actual amounts as cash is received and claims are settled, and the aggregate impact of these resulting adjustments was not significant to CVS Health's results of operations for any of the periods presented.
Patient co-payments associated with Medicare Part D, certain state Medicaid programs, Medicare Part B and certain third party payors are typically not collected at the time products are delivered or services are rendered, but are billed to the individuals as part of CVS Health's normal billing procedures and subject to the normal accounts receivable collections procedures.
Health Care Clinics - For services provided by CVS Health's health care clinics, revenue recognition occurs for completed services provided to patients, with adjustments taken for third party payor contractual obligations and patient direct bill historical collection rates.
Loyalty Program - CVS Health's customer loyalty program, ExtraCare®, is comprised of two components, ExtraSavingsTM and ExtraBucks® Rewards. ExtraSavings coupons redeemed by customers are recorded as a reduction of revenue when redeemed. ExtraBucks Rewards are accrued as a charge to cost of revenues when earned, net of estimated breakage. CVS Health determines breakage based on historical redemption patterns.
Source: CVS Health Corp., Annual Report
Revenues as Reported
CVS Health Corp., Income Statement, Revenues
USD $ in millions
|12 months ended||Dec 31, 2017||Dec 31, 2016||Dec 31, 2015||Dec 31, 2014||Dec 31, 2013|
Source: CVS Health Corp. Annual Reports
|Net revenues||Aggregate revenue recognized during the period (derived from goods sold, services rendered, insurance premiums, or other activities that constitute an entity's earning process). For financial services companies, also includes investment and interest income, and sales and trading gains.||CVS Health Corp.'s net revenues increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.|