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Income Tax Accounting Policy

CVS Health accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the consolidated financial statements. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined on the basis of the differences between the consolidated financial statements and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year or years in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in the tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

On December 22, 2017, the President signed into law the "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act" (the "TCJA"). Among numerous changes to existing tax laws, the TCJA permanently reduces the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018. The effects on deferred tax balances of changes in tax rates are required to be taken into consideration in the period in which the changes are enacted, regardless of when they are effective. As the result of the reduction of the corporate income tax rate under the TCJA, CVS Health estimated the revaluation of its net deferred tax liabilities and recorded a provisional noncash income tax benefit of approximately $1.5 billion for year ended December 31, 2017. CVS Health has not completed all of its processes to determine the TCJA's final impact. The final impact may differ from this provisional amount due to, among other things, changes in interpretations and assumptions CVS Health has made thus far and the issuance of additional regulatory or other guidance. The accounting is expected to be completed by the time the 2017 federal income tax return is filed in 2018.

CVS Health recognizes net deferred tax assets to the extent that it believes these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, CVS Health considers all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies, and results of recent operations. To the extent that CVS Health does not consider it more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will be recovered, a valuation allowance is established.

CVS Health records uncertain tax positions on the basis of a two-step process whereby (1) CVS Health determines whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained on the basis of the technical merits of the position and (2) for those tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, CVS Health recognizes the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50% likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority.

Interest and/or penalties related to uncertain tax positions are recognized in income tax expense.

Source: CVS Health Corp., Annual Report

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Income Tax Expense (Benefit)

CVS Health Corp., income tax expense (benefit), continuing operations

USD $ in millions

 
12 months ended Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Federal
State
Current
Federal
State
Deferred
Income tax provision for continuing operations

Source: Based on data from CVS Health Corp. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Current The component of income tax expense for the period representing amounts of income taxes paid or payable (or refundable) for the period for all income tax obligations as determined by applying the provisions of relevant enacted tax laws to relevant amounts of taxable income (loss) from continuing operations. CVS Health Corp.'s current declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Deferred The component of income tax expense for the period representing the net change in the entity's deferred tax assets and liabilities pertaining to continuing operations. CVS Health Corp.'s deferred increased from 2015 to 2016 but then declined significantly from 2016 to 2017.
Income tax provision for continuing operations The sum of the current income tax expense (benefit) and the deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to pretax income (loss) from continuing operations; income tax expense (benefit) may include interest and penalties on tax uncertainties based on the entity's accounting policy. CVS Health Corp.'s income tax provision for continuing operations declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Effective Income Tax Rate (EITR)

CVS Health Corp., effective income tax rate (EITR) reconciliation

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Statutory income tax rate % % % % %
State income taxes, net of federal tax benefit % % % % %
Provisional effect of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act % % % % %
Other % % % % %
Effective income tax rate % % % % %

Source: Based on data from CVS Health Corp. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Effective income tax rate A ratio calculated by dividing the reported amount of income tax expense attributable to continuing operations for the period by GAAP-basis pretax income from continuing operations. CVS Health Corp.'s effective income tax rate declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Components of Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities

CVS Health Corp., components of deferred tax assets and liabilities

USD $ in millions

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Lease and rents
Inventory
Employee benefits
Allowance for doubtful accounts
Retirement benefits
Net operating loss and capital loss carryforwards
Depreciation
Deferred income
Other
Deferred income tax assets, gross
Valuation allowance
Deferred income tax assets
Inventories
Depreciation and amortization
Deferred income tax liabilities
Net deferred income tax assets (liabilities)

Source: Based on data from CVS Health Corp. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Deferred income tax assets, gross The sum of the tax effects as of the balance sheet date of the amounts of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws (before the valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such sum amount to net realizable value). Includes any tax benefit realized in deferred tax assets for significant impacts of tax planning strategies. CVS Health Corp.'s deferred income tax assets, gross declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Deferred income tax assets The aggregate tax effects as of the balance sheet date of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; net of deducting the allocated valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. CVS Health Corp.'s deferred income tax assets declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Net deferred income tax assets (liabilities) For entities that net deferred tax assets and tax liabilities, represents the unclassified net amount of deferred tax assets and liabilities as of the balance sheet date, which result from applying the applicable enacted tax rate to net temporary differences and carryforwards pertaining to assets or liabilities. A temporary difference is a difference between the tax basis of an asset or liability and its carrying amount in the financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles that will reverse in ensuing periods. CVS Health Corp.'s net deferred income tax assets (liabilities) increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities, Classification

CVS Health Corp., deferred tax assets and liabilities, classification

USD $ in millions

 

Source: Based on data from CVS Health Corp. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Deferred income tax assets, current The current portion of the aggregate tax effects as of the balance sheet date of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; after deducting the allocated valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. An unrecognized tax benefit that is directly related to a position taken in a tax year that results in a net operating loss carryforward should be presented as a reduction of the related deferred tax asset.
Deferred income tax assets, noncurrent (included in other assets) The noncurrent portion as of the balance sheet date of the aggregate carrying amount of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; after the valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference.
Deferred income tax liabilities, noncurrent Represents the noncurrent portion of deferred tax liabilities, which result from applying the applicable tax rate to net taxable temporary differences pertaining to each jurisdiction to which the entity is obligated to pay income tax. A noncurrent taxable temporary difference is a difference between the tax basis and the carrying amount of a noncurrent asset or liability in the financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. In a classified statement of financial position, an enterprise shall separate deferred tax liabilities and assets into a current amount and a noncurrent amount. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. CVS Health Corp.'s deferred income tax liabilities, noncurrent declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Analyst Adjustments: Removal of Deferred Taxes

CVS Health Corp., adjustments to financial data

USD $ in millions

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Adjustment to Current Assets
Current assets (as reported)
Less: Current deferred tax assets, net
Current assets (adjusted)
Adjustment to Total Assets
Total assets (as reported)
Less: Current deferred tax assets, net
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax assets, net
Total assets (adjusted)
Adjustment to Total Liabilities
Total liabilities (as reported)
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax liabilities, net
Total liabilities (adjusted)
Adjustment to Total CVS Health Shareholders' Equity
Total CVS Health shareholders' equity (as reported)
Less: Net deferred tax assets (liabilities)
Total CVS Health shareholders' equity (adjusted)
Adjustment to Net Income Attributable To CVS Health
Net income attributable to CVS Health (as reported)
Add: Deferred income tax expense (benefit)
Net income attributable to CVS Health (adjusted)

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Adjusted Ratios: Removal of Deferred Taxes (Summary)

CVS Health Corp., adjusted ratios

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Current Ratio
Reported current ratio
Adjusted current ratio
Net Profit Margin
Reported net profit margin % % % % %
Adjusted net profit margin % % % % %
Total Asset Turnover
Reported total asset turnover
Adjusted total asset turnover
Financial Leverage
Reported financial leverage
Adjusted financial leverage
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE % % % % %
Adjusted ROE % % % % %
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA % % % % %
Adjusted ROA % % % % %
Ratio Description The company
Adjusted current ratio A liquidity ratio calculated as adjusted current assets divided by adjusted current liabilities. CVS Health Corp.'s adjusted current ratio deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. CVS Health Corp.'s adjusted net profit margin deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. CVS Health Corp.'s adjusted total asset turnover improved from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
CVS Health Corp.'s adjusted financial leverage increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. CVS Health Corp.'s adjusted ROE improved from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly deteriorated from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. CVS Health Corp.'s adjusted ROA improved from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 not reaching 2015 level.

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Adjusted Current Ratio

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Current assets (USD $ in millions)
Current liabilities (USD $ in millions)
Current ratio1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted current assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted current ratio2

2017 Calculations

1 Current ratio = Current assets ÷ Current liabilities
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted current ratio = Adjusted current assets ÷ Current liabilities
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted current ratio A liquidity ratio calculated as adjusted current assets divided by adjusted current liabilities. CVS Health Corp.'s adjusted current ratio deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Net Profit Margin

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income attributable to CVS Health (USD $ in millions)
Net revenues (USD $ in millions)
Net profit margin1 % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income attributable to CVS Health (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted net profit margin2 % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 Net profit margin = 100 × Net income attributable to CVS Health ÷ Net revenues
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted net profit margin = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to CVS Health ÷ Net revenues
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. CVS Health Corp.'s adjusted net profit margin deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Total Asset Turnover

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net revenues (USD $ in millions)
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
Total asset turnover1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total asset turnover2

2017 Calculations

1 Total asset turnover = Net revenues ÷ Total assets
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted total asset turnover = Net revenues ÷ Adjusted total assets
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. CVS Health Corp.'s adjusted total asset turnover improved from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Financial Leverage

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
Total CVS Health shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Financial leverage1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total CVS Health shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted financial leverage2

2017 Calculations

1 Financial leverage = Total assets ÷ Total CVS Health shareholders' equity
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted financial leverage = Adjusted total assets ÷ Adjusted total CVS Health shareholders' equity
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
CVS Health Corp.'s adjusted financial leverage increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income attributable to CVS Health (USD $ in millions)
Total CVS Health shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
ROE1 % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income attributable to CVS Health (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total CVS Health shareholders' equity (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted ROE2 % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net income attributable to CVS Health ÷ Total CVS Health shareholders' equity
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to CVS Health ÷ Adjusted total CVS Health shareholders' equity
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. CVS Health Corp.'s adjusted ROE improved from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly deteriorated from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income attributable to CVS Health (USD $ in millions)
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
ROA1 % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income attributable to CVS Health (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted ROA2 % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income attributable to CVS Health ÷ Total assets
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to CVS Health ÷ Adjusted total assets
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. CVS Health Corp.'s adjusted ROA improved from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 not reaching 2015 level.

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