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Economic Value Added (EVA)

Difficulty: Advanced

EVA is registered trademark of Stern Stewart.

Economic value added or economic profit is the difference between revenues and costs,where costs include not only expenses, but also cost of capital.


Economic Profit

Express Scripts Holding Co., economic profit calculation

USD $ in thousands

 
12 months ended Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)1
Cost of capital2 % % % % %
Invested capital3
Economic profit4

Source: Based on data from Express Scripts Holding Co. Annual Reports

2017 Calculations

1 NOPAT. See Details »

2 Cost of capital. See Details »

3 Invested capital. See Details »

4 Economic profit = NOPAT – Cost of capital × Invested capital
= % × =

Item Description The company
Economic profit Economic profit is a measure of corporate performance computed by taking the spread between the return on invested capital and the cost of capital, and multiplying by the invested capital. Express Scripts Holding Co.'s economic profit increased from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly declined from 2016 to 2017.

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Net Operating Profit after Taxes (NOPAT)

Express Scripts Holding Co., NOPAT calculation

USD $ in thousands

 
12 months ended Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Net income attributable to Express Scripts
Deferred income tax expense (benefit)1
Increase (decrease) in allowance for doubtful accounts2
Increase (decrease) in equity equivalents3
Interest expense and other
Interest expense, operating lease obligations4
Adjusted interest expense and other
Tax benefit of interest expense and other5
Adjusted interest expense and other, after taxes6
(Income) loss from discontinued operations, net of tax7
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest
Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT)

Source: Based on data from Express Scripts Holding Co. Annual Reports

2017 Calculations

1 Elimination of deferred tax expense. See Details »

2 Addition of increase (decrease) in allowance for doubtful accounts.

3 Addition of increase (decrease) in equity equivalents to net income attributable to Express Scripts.

4 Addition of interest expense on capitalized operating leases. See Details »

5 Tax benefit of interest expense and other = Adjusted interest expense and other × Statutory income tax rate
= × 35% =

6 Addition of after taxes interest expense to net income attributable to Express Scripts.

7 Elimination of discontinued operations.

Item Description The company
NOPAT Net operating profit after taxes is income from operations, but after removement of taxes calculated on cash basis that are relevant to operating income. Express Scripts Holding Co.'s NOPAT increased from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly declined from 2016 to 2017.

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Cash Operating Taxes

Express Scripts Holding Co., cash operating taxes calculation

USD $ in thousands

 
12 months ended Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Provision for income taxes
Less: Deferred income tax expense (benefit)
Add: Tax savings from interest expense and other
Cash operating taxes

Source: Based on data from Express Scripts Holding Co. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Cash operating taxes Cash operating taxes are estimated by adjusting income tax expense for changes in deferred taxes and tax benefit from the interest deduction. Express Scripts Holding Co.'s cash operating taxes declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 exceeding 2015 level.

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Invested Capital

Express Scripts Holding Co., invested capital calculation (financing approach)

USD $ in thousands

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Short-term debt and current maturities of long-term debt
Long-term debt, excluding current maturities
PV of operating lease payments1
Total reported debt & leases
Total Express Scripts stockholders' equity
Net deferred tax (assets) liabilities2
Allowance for doubtful accounts3
Equity equivalents4
Accumulated other comprehensive (income) loss, net of tax5
Non-controlling interest
Adjusted total Express Scripts stockholders' equity
Invested capital

Source: Based on data from Express Scripts Holding Co. Annual Reports

1 Addition of capitalized operating leases. See Details »

2 Elimination of deferred taxes from assets and liabilities. See Details »

3 Addition of allowance for doubtful accounts receivable.

4 Addition of equity equivalents to total Express Scripts stockholders' equity.

5 Removal of accumulated other comprehensive income.

Item Description The company
Invested capital Capital is an approximation of the economic book value of all cash invested in going-concern business activities. Express Scripts Holding Co.'s invested capital declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 not reaching 2015 level.

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Cost of Capital

Express Scripts Holding Co., cost of capital calculations

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 ÷ = × % = %
Debt3 ÷ = × % × (1 – 35%) = %
PV of operating lease payments4 ÷ = × % × (1 – 35%) = %
Total: %

Source: Based on data from Express Scripts Holding Co. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in thousands

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 ÷ = × % = %
Debt3 ÷ = × % × (1 – 35%) = %
PV of operating lease payments4 ÷ = × % × (1 – 35%) = %
Total: %

Source: Based on data from Express Scripts Holding Co. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in thousands

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 ÷ = × % = %
Debt3 ÷ = × % × (1 – 35%) = %
PV of operating lease payments4 ÷ = × % × (1 – 35%) = %
Total: %

Source: Based on data from Express Scripts Holding Co. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in thousands

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 ÷ = × % = %
Debt3 ÷ = × % × (1 – 35%) = %
PV of operating lease payments4 ÷ = × % × (1 – 35%) = %
Total: %

Source: Based on data from Express Scripts Holding Co. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in thousands

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

Fair Value1 Weights Cost of Capital
Equity2 ÷ = × % = %
Debt3 ÷ = × % × (1 – 35%) = %
PV of operating lease payments4 ÷ = × % × (1 – 35%) = %
Total: %

Source: Based on data from Express Scripts Holding Co. Annual Reports

1 USD $ in thousands

2 Equity. See Details »

3 Debt. See Details »

4 PV of operating lease payments. See Details »

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Economic Spread

Express Scripts Holding Co., economic spread calculation

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in thousands)
Economic profit1
Invested capital2
Ratio
Economic spread3 % % % % %

Source: Based on data from Express Scripts Holding Co. Annual Reports

2017 Calculations

1 Economic profit. See Details »

2 Invested capital. See Details »

3 Economic spread = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Invested capital
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Economic spread The ratio of economic profit to invested capital, also equal to the difference between return on invested capital (ROIC) and cost of capital. Express Scripts Holding Co.'s economic spread improved from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly deteriorated from 2016 to 2017.

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Economic Profit Margin

Express Scripts Holding Co., economic profit margin calculation

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in thousands)
Economic profit1
Revenues
Ratio
Economic profit margin2 % % % % %

Source: Based on data from Express Scripts Holding Co. Annual Reports

2017 Calculations

1 Economic profit. See Details »

2 Economic profit margin = 100 × Economic profit ÷ Revenues
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Economic profit margin The ratio of economic profit to sales. It is the company's profit margin covering income efficiency and asset management. Economic profit margin is not biased in favor of capital-intensive business models, because any added capital is a cost to the economic profit margin. Express Scripts Holding Co.'s economic profit margin improved from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly deteriorated from 2016 to 2017.

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