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Analysis of Goodwill and Intangible Assets

Difficulty: Advanced


Goodwill and Intangible Assets Accounting Policy

Goodwill

HP reviews goodwill for impairment annually during its fourth quarter and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of goodwill may not be recoverable. HP can elect to perform a qualitative assessment to test a reporting unit’s goodwill for impairment or HP can directly perform the quantitative impairment test. Based on the qualitative assessment, if HP determines that the fair value of a reporting unit is more likely than not (i.e., a likelihood of more than 50 percent) to be less than its carrying amount, a quantitative impairment test will be performed.

In the quantitative impairment test, HP compares the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying amount with the fair values derived most significantly from the income approach, and to a lesser extent, the market approach. Under the income approach, HP estimates the fair value of a reporting unit based on the present value of estimated future cash flows. HP bases cash flow projections on management’s estimates of revenue growth rates and operating margins, taking into consideration industry and market conditions. HP bases the discount rate on the weighted-average cost of capital adjusted for the relevant risk associated with business-specific characteristics and the uncertainty related to the reporting unit’s ability to execute on the projected cash flows. Under the market approach, HP estimates fair value based on market multiples of revenue and earnings derived from comparable publicly-traded companies with similar operating and investment characteristics as the reporting unit. HP weights the fair value derived from the market approach depending on the level of comparability of these publicly-traded companies to the reporting unit. When market comparables are not meaningful or not available, HP estimates the fair value of a reporting unit using only the income approach.

In order to assess the reasonableness of the estimated fair value of HP’s reporting units, HP compares the aggregate reporting unit fair value to HP’s market capitalization on an overall basis and calculates an implied control premium (the excess of the sum of the reporting units’ fair value over HP’s market capitalization on an overall basis). HP evaluates the control premium by comparing it to observable control premiums from recent comparable transactions. If the implied control premium is determined to not be reasonable in light of these recent transactions, HP re-evaluates its reporting unit fair values, which may result in an adjustment to the discount rate and/or other assumptions. This re-evaluation could result in a change to the estimated fair value for certain or all reporting units.

If the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds the carrying amount of the net assets assigned to that reporting unit, goodwill is not impaired. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, goodwill is impaired and the excess of the reporting unit’s carrying value over the fair value is recognized as an impairment loss.

Source: 10-K (filing date: 2018-12-13).


Goodwill and Intangible Assets Disclosure

HP Inc., Statement of Financial Position, Goodwill and Intangible Assets

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Oct 31, 2018 Oct 31, 2017 Oct 31, 2016 Oct 31, 2015 Oct 31, 2014 Oct 31, 2013
Customer contracts, customer lists and distribution agreements hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Technology and patents hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Trade name and trade marks hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
In-process research and development hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Intangible assets, gross hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Accumulated amortization hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Intangible assets, net hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Goodwill hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Goodwill and purchased intangible assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-12-13), 10-K (filing date: 2017-12-14), 10-K (filing date: 2016-12-15), 10-K (filing date: 2015-12-16), 10-K (filing date: 2014-12-18), 10-K (filing date: 2013-12-30).

Item Description The company
Intangible assets, net Sum of the carrying amounts of all intangible assets, excluding goodwill, as of the balance sheet date, net of accumulated amortization and impairment charges. HP Inc.’s intangible assets, net increased from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.
Goodwill Amount after accumulated impairment loss of an asset representing future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in a business combination that are not individually identified and separately recognized.
Goodwill and purchased intangible assets Sum of the carrying amounts of all intangible assets, including goodwill, as of the balance sheet date, net of accumulated amortization and impairment charges. HP Inc.’s goodwill and purchased intangible assets increased from 2016 to 2017 and from 2017 to 2018.

Analyst Adjustments: Removal of Goodwill

HP Inc., adjustments to financial data

USD $ in millions

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Oct 31, 2018 Oct 31, 2017 Oct 31, 2016 Oct 31, 2015 Oct 31, 2014 Oct 31, 2013
Adjustment to Total Assets
Total assets (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Goodwill hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjustment to Total HP Stockholders’ Equity (deficit)
Total HP stockholders’ equity (deficit) (as reported) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Less: Goodwill hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total HP stockholders’ equity (deficit) (adjusted) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-12-13), 10-K (filing date: 2017-12-14), 10-K (filing date: 2016-12-15), 10-K (filing date: 2015-12-16), 10-K (filing date: 2014-12-18), 10-K (filing date: 2013-12-30).


HP Inc., Financial Data: Reported vs. Adjusted


Adjusted Ratios: Removal of Goodwill (Summary)

HP Inc., adjusted ratios

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Oct 31, 2018 Oct 31, 2017 Oct 31, 2016 Oct 31, 2015 Oct 31, 2014 Oct 31, 2013
Total Asset Turnover
Reported total asset turnover hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total asset turnover hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Financial Leverage
Reported financial leverage hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted financial leverage hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted ROE hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted ROA hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-12-13), 10-K (filing date: 2017-12-14), 10-K (filing date: 2016-12-15), 10-K (filing date: 2015-12-16), 10-K (filing date: 2014-12-18), 10-K (filing date: 2013-12-30).

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. HP Inc.’s adjusted total asset turnover deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 not reaching 2016 level.
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by adjusted shareholders’ equity.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by adjusted total assets. HP Inc.’s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.

HP Inc., Ratios: Reported vs. Adjusted


Adjusted Total Asset Turnover

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Oct 31, 2018 Oct 31, 2017 Oct 31, 2016 Oct 31, 2015 Oct 31, 2014 Oct 31, 2013
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Net revenue hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Total asset turnover1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Goodwill
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Net revenue hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted total asset turnover2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-12-13), 10-K (filing date: 2017-12-14), 10-K (filing date: 2016-12-15), 10-K (filing date: 2015-12-16), 10-K (filing date: 2014-12-18), 10-K (filing date: 2013-12-30).

2018 Calculations

1 Total asset turnover = Net revenue ÷ Total assets
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted total asset turnover = Net revenue ÷ Adjusted total assets
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. HP Inc.’s adjusted total asset turnover deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 not reaching 2016 level.

Adjusted Financial Leverage

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Oct 31, 2018 Oct 31, 2017 Oct 31, 2016 Oct 31, 2015 Oct 31, 2014 Oct 31, 2013
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total HP stockholders’ equity (deficit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Financial leverage1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Goodwill
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total HP stockholders’ equity (deficit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted financial leverage2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-12-13), 10-K (filing date: 2017-12-14), 10-K (filing date: 2016-12-15), 10-K (filing date: 2015-12-16), 10-K (filing date: 2014-12-18), 10-K (filing date: 2013-12-30).

2018 Calculations

1 Financial leverage = Total assets ÷ Total HP stockholders’ equity (deficit)
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted financial leverage = Adjusted total assets ÷ Adjusted total HP stockholders’ equity (deficit)
= hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.

Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Oct 31, 2018 Oct 31, 2017 Oct 31, 2016 Oct 31, 2015 Oct 31, 2014 Oct 31, 2013
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Net earnings hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total HP stockholders’ equity (deficit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
ROE1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Goodwill
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Net earnings hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total HP stockholders’ equity (deficit) hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted ROE2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-12-13), 10-K (filing date: 2017-12-14), 10-K (filing date: 2016-12-15), 10-K (filing date: 2015-12-16), 10-K (filing date: 2014-12-18), 10-K (filing date: 2013-12-30).

2018 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net earnings ÷ Total HP stockholders’ equity (deficit)
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Net earnings ÷ Adjusted total HP stockholders’ equity (deficit)
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by adjusted shareholders’ equity.

Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

Microsoft Excel LibreOffice Calc
Oct 31, 2018 Oct 31, 2017 Oct 31, 2016 Oct 31, 2015 Oct 31, 2014 Oct 31, 2013
As Reported
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Net earnings hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
ROA1 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted for Goodwill
Selected Financial Data (USD $ in millions)
Net earnings hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Adjusted total assets hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden
Ratio
Adjusted ROA2 hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2018-12-13), 10-K (filing date: 2017-12-14), 10-K (filing date: 2016-12-15), 10-K (filing date: 2015-12-16), 10-K (filing date: 2014-12-18), 10-K (filing date: 2013-12-30).

2018 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net earnings ÷ Total assets
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Net earnings ÷ Adjusted total assets
= 100 × hidden ÷ hidden = hidden

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by adjusted total assets. HP Inc.’s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2016 to 2017 but then improved from 2017 to 2018 exceeding 2016 level.