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Income Tax Accounting Policy

Income tax expense includes U.S., state, local and international income taxes, plus a provision for U.S. taxes on undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries and other prescribed foreign entities not deemed to be indefinitely reinvested. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities. The tax rate used to determine the deferred tax assets and liabilities is the enacted tax rate for the year and manner in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that will more likely than not be realized. Coca-Cola records taxes that are collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities on a net basis in the consolidated statements of income.

Coca-Cola is involved in various tax matters, with respect to some of which the outcome is uncertain. Coca-Cola establishes reserves to remove some or all of the tax benefit of any of the tax positions at the time Coca-Cola determines that it becomes uncertain based upon one of the following conditions: (1) the tax position is not "more likely than not" to be sustained, (2) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, but for a lesser amount, or (3) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, but not in the financial period in which the tax position was originally taken. For purposes of evaluating whether or not a tax position is uncertain, (1) Coca-Cola presumes the tax position will be examined by the relevant taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information; (2) the technical merits of a tax position are derived from authorities such as legislation and statutes, legislative intent, regulations, rulings and case law and their applicability to the facts and circumstances of the tax position; and (3) each tax position is evaluated without consideration of the possibility of offset or aggregation with other tax positions taken. A number of years may elapse before a particular uncertain tax position is audited and finally resolved or when a tax assessment is raised. The number of years subject to tax assessments varies depending on the tax jurisdiction. The tax benefit that has been previously reserved because of a failure to meet the "more likely than not" recognition threshold would be recognized in income tax expense in the first interim period when the uncertainty disappears under any one of the following conditions: (1) the tax position is "more likely than not" to be sustained, (2) the tax position, amount, and/or timing is ultimately settled through negotiation or litigation, or (3) the statute of limitations for the tax position has expired.

Source: Coca-Cola Co., Annual Report

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Income Tax Expense (Benefit)

Coca-Cola Co., income tax expense (benefit), continuing operations

USD $ in millions

 
12 months ended Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
United States
State and local
International
Current
United States
State and local
International
Deferred
Income taxes from continuing operations

Source: Based on data from Coca-Cola Co. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Current The component of income tax expense for the period representing amounts of income taxes paid or payable (or refundable) for the period for all income tax obligations as determined by applying the provisions of relevant enacted tax laws to relevant amounts of taxable income (loss) from continuing operations. Coca-Cola Co.'s current increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Deferred The component of income tax expense for the period representing the net change in the entity's deferred tax assets and liabilities pertaining to continuing operations. Coca-Cola Co.'s deferred declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Income taxes from continuing operations The sum of the current income tax expense (benefit) and the deferred income tax expense (benefit) pertaining to pretax income (loss) from continuing operations; income tax expense (benefit) may include interest and penalties on tax uncertainties based on the entity's accounting policy. Coca-Cola Co.'s income taxes from continuing operations declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 exceeding 2015 level.

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Effective Income Tax Rate (EITR)

Coca-Cola Co., effective income tax rate (EITR) reconciliation

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Statutory U.S. federal tax rate % % % % %
State and local income taxes, net of federal benefit % % % % %
Earnings in jurisdictions taxed at rates different from the statutory U.S. federal rate % % % % %
Equity income or loss % % % % %
Tax Reform Act % % % % %
Other, net % % % % %
Effective tax rate % % % % %

Source: Based on data from Coca-Cola Co. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Effective tax rate A ratio calculated by dividing the reported amount of income tax expense attributable to continuing operations for the period by GAAP-basis pretax income from continuing operations. Coca-Cola Co.'s effective tax rate declined from 2015 to 2016 but then increased from 2016 to 2017 exceeding 2015 level.

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Components of Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities

Coca-Cola Co., components of deferred tax assets and liabilities

USD $ in millions

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Property, plant and equipment
Trademarks and other intangible assets
Equity method investments, including foreign currency translation adjustment
Derivative financial instruments
Other liabilities
Benefit plans
Net operating/capital loss carryforwards
Other
Gross deferred tax assets
Valuation allowances
Deferred tax assets
Property, plant and equipment
Trademarks and other intangible assets
Equity method investments, including foreign currency translation adjustment
Derivative financial instruments
Other liabilities
Benefit plans
Other
Deferred tax liabilities
Net deferred tax assets (liabilities)

Source: Based on data from Coca-Cola Co. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Gross deferred tax assets The sum of the tax effects as of the balance sheet date of the amounts of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws (before the valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such sum amount to net realizable value). Includes any tax benefit realized in deferred tax assets for significant impacts of tax planning strategies. Coca-Cola Co.'s gross deferred tax assets increased from 2015 to 2016 but then declined significantly from 2016 to 2017.
Deferred tax assets The aggregate tax effects as of the balance sheet date of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; net of deducting the allocated valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. Coca-Cola Co.'s deferred tax assets increased from 2015 to 2016 but then declined significantly from 2016 to 2017.
Net deferred tax assets (liabilities) For entities that net deferred tax assets and tax liabilities, represents the unclassified net amount of deferred tax assets and liabilities as of the balance sheet date, which result from applying the applicable enacted tax rate to net temporary differences and carryforwards pertaining to assets or liabilities. A temporary difference is a difference between the tax basis of an asset or liability and its carrying amount in the financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles that will reverse in ensuing periods. Coca-Cola Co.'s net deferred tax assets (liabilities) increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities, Classification

Coca-Cola Co., deferred tax assets and liabilities, classification

USD $ in millions

 

Source: Based on data from Coca-Cola Co. Annual Reports

Item Description The company
Current deferred tax assets (included in Prepaid expenses and other assets) The current portion of the aggregate tax effects as of the balance sheet date of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; after deducting the allocated valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. An unrecognized tax benefit that is directly related to a position taken in a tax year that results in a net operating loss carryforward should be presented as a reduction of the related deferred tax asset. Coca-Cola Co.'s current deferred tax assets (included in Prepaid expenses and other assets) declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Noncurrent deferred tax assets (included in Other assets) The noncurrent portion as of the balance sheet date of the aggregate carrying amount of all future tax deductions arising from temporary differences between tax basis and generally accepted accounting principles basis recognition of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, which can only be deducted for tax purposes when permitted under enacted tax laws; after the valuation allowance, if any, to reduce such amount to net realizable value. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. Coca-Cola Co.'s noncurrent deferred tax assets (included in Other assets) declined from 2015 to 2016 but then slightly increased from 2016 to 2017.
Current deferred tax liabilities (included in Accounts payable and accrued expenses) Represents the current portion of deferred tax liabilities, which result from applying the applicable tax rate to net taxable temporary differences pertaining to each jurisdiction to which the entity is obligated to pay income tax. A current taxable temporary difference is a difference between the tax basis and the carrying amount of a current asset or liability in the financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. In a classified statement of financial position, an enterprise shall separate deferred tax liabilities and assets into a current amount and a noncurrent amount. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. Coca-Cola Co.'s current deferred tax liabilities (included in Accounts payable and accrued expenses) declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Noncurrent deferred tax liabilities Represents the noncurrent portion of deferred tax liabilities, which result from applying the applicable tax rate to net taxable temporary differences pertaining to each jurisdiction to which the entity is obligated to pay income tax. A noncurrent taxable temporary difference is a difference between the tax basis and the carrying amount of a noncurrent asset or liability in the financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. In a classified statement of financial position, an enterprise shall separate deferred tax liabilities and assets into a current amount and a noncurrent amount. Deferred tax liabilities and assets shall be classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. A deferred tax liability or asset that is not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting, including deferred tax assets related to carryforwards, shall be classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. Coca-Cola Co.'s noncurrent deferred tax liabilities declined from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Analyst Adjustments: Removal of Deferred Taxes

Coca-Cola Co., adjustments to financial data

USD $ in millions

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Adjustment to Current Assets
Current assets (as reported)
Less: Current deferred tax assets, net
Current assets (adjusted)
Adjustment to Total Assets
Total assets (as reported)
Less: Current deferred tax assets, net
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax assets, net
Total assets (adjusted)
Adjustment to Current Liabilities
Current liabilities (as reported)
Less: Current deferred tax liabilities, net
Current liabilities (adjusted)
Adjustment to Total Liabilities
Total liabilities (as reported)
Less: Current deferred tax liabilities, net
Less: Noncurrent deferred tax liabilities, net
Total liabilities (adjusted)
Adjustment to Equity Attributable To Shareowners Of The Coca-Cola Company
Equity attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (as reported)
Less: Net deferred tax assets (liabilities)
Equity attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (adjusted)
Adjustment to Net Income Attributable To Shareowners Of The Coca-Cola Company
Net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (as reported)
Add: Deferred income tax expense (benefit)
Net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (adjusted)

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Adjusted Ratios: Removal of Deferred Taxes (Summary)

Coca-Cola Co., adjusted ratios

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
Current Ratio
Reported current ratio
Adjusted current ratio
Net Profit Margin
Reported net profit margin % % % % %
Adjusted net profit margin % % % % %
Total Asset Turnover
Reported total asset turnover
Adjusted total asset turnover
Financial Leverage
Reported financial leverage
Adjusted financial leverage
Return on Equity (ROE)
Reported ROE % % % % %
Adjusted ROE % % % % %
Return on Assets (ROA)
Reported ROA % % % % %
Adjusted ROA % % % % %
Ratio Description The company
Adjusted current ratio A liquidity ratio calculated as adjusted current assets divided by adjusted current liabilities. Coca-Cola Co.'s adjusted current ratio improved from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. Coca-Cola Co.'s adjusted net profit margin deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. Coca-Cola Co.'s adjusted total asset turnover deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Coca-Cola Co.'s adjusted financial leverage increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. Coca-Cola Co.'s adjusted ROE deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. Coca-Cola Co.'s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Current Ratio

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Current assets (USD $ in millions)
Current liabilities (USD $ in millions)
Current ratio1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted current assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted current liabilities (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted current ratio2

2017 Calculations

1 Current ratio = Current assets ÷ Current liabilities
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted current ratio = Adjusted current assets ÷ Adjusted current liabilities
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted current ratio A liquidity ratio calculated as adjusted current assets divided by adjusted current liabilities. Coca-Cola Co.'s adjusted current ratio improved from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Net Profit Margin

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (USD $ in millions)
Net operating revenues (USD $ in millions)
Net profit margin1 % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted net profit margin2 % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 Net profit margin = 100 × Net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company ÷ Net operating revenues
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted net profit margin = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company ÷ Net operating revenues
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted net profit margin An indicator of profitability, calculated as adjusted net income divided by total revenue. Coca-Cola Co.'s adjusted net profit margin deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Total Asset Turnover

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net operating revenues (USD $ in millions)
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
Total asset turnover1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total asset turnover2

2017 Calculations

1 Total asset turnover = Net operating revenues ÷ Total assets
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted total asset turnover = Net operating revenues ÷ Adjusted total assets
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted total asset turnover An activity ratio calculated as total revenue divided by adjusted total assets. Coca-Cola Co.'s adjusted total asset turnover deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Financial Leverage

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
Equity attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (USD $ in millions)
Financial leverage1
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted equity attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted financial leverage2

2017 Calculations

1 Financial leverage = Total assets ÷ Equity attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company
= ÷ =

2 Adjusted financial leverage = Adjusted total assets ÷ Adjusted equity attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company
= ÷ =

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted financial leverage A measure of financial leverage calculated as adjusted total assets divided by adjusted total equity.
Financial leverage is the extent to which a company can effect, through the use of debt, a proportional change in the return on common equity that is greater than a given proportional change in operating income.
Coca-Cola Co.'s adjusted financial leverage increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (USD $ in millions)
Equity attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (USD $ in millions)
ROE1 % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted equity attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted ROE2 % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 ROE = 100 × Net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company ÷ Equity attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted ROE = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company ÷ Adjusted equity attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROE A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted shareholders' equity. Coca-Cola Co.'s adjusted ROE deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)

 
Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016 Dec 31, 2015 Dec 31, 2014 Dec 31, 2013
As Reported
Net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (USD $ in millions)
Total assets (USD $ in millions)
ROA1 % % % % %
Adjusted for Deferred Taxes
Adjusted net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted total assets (USD $ in millions)
Adjusted ROA2 % % % % %

2017 Calculations

1 ROA = 100 × Net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company ÷ Total assets
= 100 × ÷ = %

2 Adjusted ROA = 100 × Adjusted net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company ÷ Adjusted total assets
= 100 × ÷ = %

Ratio Description The company
Adjusted ROA A profitability ratio calculated as adjusted net income divided by adjusted total assets. Coca-Cola Co.'s adjusted ROA deteriorated from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.

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