Basic information about Linde plc
The income statement (statement of earnings) reports on the performance of Linde plc, the result of its operating activities.
Comprehensive income is the change in equity (net assets) of Linde plc during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owners sources. It includes all changes in equity during a period except those resulting from investments by owners and distributions to owners.
The assets reports major classes and amounts of resources owned or controlled by Linde plc.
The liabilities and stockholders’ equity reports major classes and amounts of external claims on assets and owners’ capital contributions, and other internally generated sources of capital.
The cash flow statement provides information about Linde plc’s cash receipts and cash payments during an accounting period, showing how these cash flows link the ending cash balance to the beginning balance shown on Linde plc’s balance sheet.
Common-Size Financial Statements
Income statement components (revenues and expenses) shown as percentage of total sales.
Assets components shown as percentage of total assets.
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity components shown as percentage of total liabilities and stockholders’ equity.
Analysis of Financial Ratios
Evaluates revenues and output generated by the Linde plc’s assets. Operating performance ratios describe the relationship between the Linde plc’s level of operations and the assets needed to sustain operating activities.
Measures how efficiently Linde plc generates revenues from its investments in fixed or total assets.
Measures the adequacy of Linde plc’s cash resources to meet its near-term cash obligations.
Examines Linde plc’s capital structure in terms of the mix of its financing sources and the ability of the firm to satisfy its longer-term debt and investment obligations.
Measures the income of Linde plc relative to its revenues and invested capital.
An approach to decomposing Linde plc’s return on equity, return on assets, and net profit margin ratio as the product of other financial ratios.
Relative valuation technique determine the value of Linde plc by comparing it to similar entities (like industry or sector) on the basis of several relative ratios that compare its stock price to relevant variables that affect the stock’s value, such as earnings, book value, and sales.
To calculate EBITDA analysts start with net earnings. To that earnings number, interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization are added. EBITDA as a pre-interest number is a flow to all providers of capital.
Free cash flow to the firm is the cash flow available to the Linde plc’s suppliers of capital after all operating expenses have been paid and necessary investments in working and fixed capital have been made.
Free cash flow to equity is the cash flow available to Linde plc’s equity holders after all operating expenses, interest, and principal payments have been paid and necessary investments in working and fixed capital have been made.
Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Valuation
CAPM is a theory concentrated with deriving the expected rates of return on risky assets based on the assets’ systematic risk levels. Systematic risk is the variability of returns that is due to macroeconomic factors that affect all risky assets. It cannot be eliminated by diversification.
The FCFF valuation approach estimates the value of the firm as the present value of future FCFF discounted at the weighted average cost of capital (WACC).
Economic Value Added (EVA)
Internal management performance measure that compares net operating profit after taxes to total cost of capital. Indicates how profitable Linde plc projects are as a sign of management performance.
Main items of Linde plc’s financial statements.
Linde plc’s liquidity ratio calculated as current assets divided by current liabilities.
Linde plc’s profitability ratio calculated as operating income divided by revenue.
Linde plc’s profitability ratio calculated as net income divided by shareholders’ equity.
The P/E ratio tells analyst how much an investor in Linde plc’s common stock pays per dollar of current earnings.
An rationale for the P/S ratio is that sales, as the top line in an income statement, are generally less subject to distortion or manipulation than other fundamentals such as EPS or book value. Sales are also more stable than earnings and never negative.
Analysis of Components of Financial Statements
- Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
- Effective Income Tax Rate (EITR)
- Components of Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities
- Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities, Classification
- Adjustments to Financial Statements: Removal of Deferred Taxes
- Adjusted Financial Ratios: Removal of Deferred Taxes (Summary)
- Adjusted Net Profit Margin
- Adjusted Total Asset Turnover
- Adjusted Financial Leverage
- Adjusted Return on Equity (ROE)
- Adjusted Return on Assets (ROA)
Differences in accounting methods affect comparisons between companies, and analysts make adjustments to reported financial statements in the interest of comparability.
Differences in accounting methods affect financial ratio comparisons between companies, and analysts make adjustments to reported financials in the interest of comparability.
Financial Reporting Quality
The accounts receivable that are estimated to be uncollectible are called bad debts or doubtful accounts receivable.
Financial reporting quality relates to the accuracy with which Linde plc’s reported financial statements reflect its operating performance and to their usefulness for forecasting future cash flows.
Aggregate accruals deriving measures of the accrual component of Linde plc’s earnings.