Analysis of Revenues
Revenue from the sale of products is recognized when title and risk of loss of the product is transferred to the customer and the sales price is fixed and determinable. Provisions for discounts, early payments, rebates, sales returns and distributor chargebacks under terms customary in the industry are provided for in the same period the related sales are recorded. Celgene records estimated reductions to revenue for volume-based discounts and rebates at the time of the initial sale. The estimated reductions to revenue for such volume-based discounts and rebates are based on the sales terms, historical experience and trend analysis.
Celgene bases the sales returns allowance on estimated on-hand retail/hospital inventories, measured end-customer demand as reported by third-party sources, actual returns history and other factors, such as the trend experience for lots where product is still being returned or inventory centralization and rationalization initiatives conducted by major pharmacy chains, as applicable. If the historical data Celgene uses to calculate these estimates do not properly reflect future returns, then a change in the allowance would be made in the period in which such a determination is made and revenues in that period could be materially affected. Under this methodology, Celgene tracks actual returns by individual production lots. Returns on closed lots, that is, lots no longer eligible for return credits, are analyzed to determine historical returns experience. Returns on open lots, that is, lots still eligible for return credits, are monitored and compared with historical return trend rates. Any changes from the historical trend rates are considered in determining the current sales return allowance.
Sales discount accruals are based on payment terms extended to customers.
Government rebate accruals are based on estimated payments due to governmental agencies for purchases made by third parties under various governmental programs. U.S. Medicaid rebate accruals are generally based on historical payment data and estimates of future Medicaid beneficiary utilization applied to the Medicaid unit rebate formula established by the Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services. The Medicaid rebate percentage was increased and extended to Medicaid Managed Care Organizations in March 2010. The accrual of the rebates associated with Medicaid Managed Care Organizations is calculated based on estimated historical patient data related to Medicaid Managed Care Organizations. Celgene also analyzes actual billings received from the states to further support the accrual rates. Manufacturers of pharmaceutical products are responsible for 50% of the patient's cost of branded prescription drugs related to the Medicare Part D Coverage Gap. In order to estimate the cost to Celgene of this coverage gap responsibility, Celgene analyzes data for eligible Medicare Part D patients against data for eligible Medicare Part D patients treated with the products as well as the historical invoices. This expense is recognized throughout the year as costs are incurred. In certain international markets government-sponsored programs require rebates to be paid based on program specific rules and, accordingly, the rebate accruals are determined primarily on estimated eligible sales.
Rebates or administrative fees are offered to certain wholesale customers, group purchasing organizations and end-user customers, consistent with pharmaceutical industry practices. Settlement of rebates and fees may generally occur from one to 15 months from the date of sale. Celgene records a provision for rebates at the time of sale based on contracted rates and historical redemption rates. Assumptions used to establish the provision include level of wholesaler inventories, contract sales volumes and average contract pricing. Celgene regularly reviews the information related to these estimates and adjusts the provision accordingly.
Chargeback accruals are based on the differentials between product acquisition prices paid by wholesalers and lower government contract pricing paid by eligible customers covered under federally qualified programs. Distributor service fee accruals are based on contractual fees to be paid to the wholesale distributor for services provided. TRICARE is a health care program of the U.S. Department of Defense Military Health System that provides civilian health benefits for military personnel, military retirees and their dependents. TRICARE rebate accruals are included in chargeback accruals and are based on estimated Department of Defense eligible sales multiplied by the TRICARE rebate formula.
Celgene records estimated reductions to revenue for free goods and volume-based discounts at the time of the initial sale. The estimated reductions to revenue for such free goods and volume-based discounts are based on the sales terms, historical experience and trend analysis. The cost of free goods is included in cost of goods sold (excluding amortization of acquired intangible assets).
Celgene recognizes revenue from royalties based on licensees' sales of the products or products using the technologies. Royalties are recognized as earned in accordance with the contract terms when royalties from licensees can be reasonably estimated and collectability is reasonably assured. If royalties cannot be reasonably estimated or collectability of a royalty amount is not reasonably assured, royalties are recognized as revenue when the cash is received.
Source: Celgene Corp., Annual Report
Celgene Corp., Income Statement, Revenues
USD $ in millions
|12 months ended||Dec 31, 2017||Dec 31, 2016||Dec 31, 2015||Dec 31, 2014||Dec 31, 2013|
|||Azacitidine for injection|
|||Net product sales|
Source: Celgene Corp. Annual Reports
|Net product sales||Aggregate revenue recognized during the period (derived from goods sold, services rendered, insurance premiums, or other activities that constitute an entity's earning process). For financial services companies, also includes investment and interest income, and sales and trading gains.||Celgene Corp.'s net product sales increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017.|