# Ecolab Inc. (NYSE:ECL)

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## Present Value of Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF)

Intermediate level

In discounted cash flow (DCF) valuation techniques the value of the stock is estimated based upon present value of some measure of cash flow. Free cash flow to the firm (FCFF) is generally described as cash flows after direct costs and before any payments to capital suppliers.

### Intrinsic Stock Value (Valuation Summary)

Ecolab Inc., free cash flow to the firm (FCFF) forecast

US\$ in thousands, except per share data

Year Value FCFFt or Terminal value (TVt) Calculation Present value at
01 FCFF0
1 FCFF1 = × (1 + )
2 FCFF2 = × (1 + )
3 FCFF3 = × (1 + )
4 FCFF4 = × (1 + )
5 FCFF5 = × (1 + )
5 Terminal value (TV5) = × (1 + ) ÷ ()
Intrinsic value of Ecolab Inc.’s capital
Less: Debt (fair value)
Intrinsic value of Ecolab Inc.’s common stock

Intrinsic value of Ecolab Inc.’s common stock (per share)
Current share price

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2021-02-26).

Disclaimer!
Valuation is based on standard assumptions. There may exist specific factors relevant to stock value and omitted here. In such a case, the real stock value may differ significantly form the estimated. If you want to use the estimated intrinsic stock value in investment decision making process, do so at your own risk.

### Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)

Ecolab Inc., cost of capital

Value1 Weight Required rate of return2 Calculation
Equity (fair value)
Debt (fair value) = × (1 – )

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2021-02-26).

1 US\$ in thousands

Equity (fair value) = No. shares of common stock outstanding × Current share price
= ×
=

Debt (fair value). See details »

2 Required rate of return on equity is estimated by using CAPM. See details »

Required rate of return on debt. See details »

Required rate of return on debt is after tax.

Estimated (average) effective income tax rate
= ( + + + + ) ÷ 5
=

WACC =

### FCFF Growth Rate (g)

#### FCFF growth rate (g) implied by PRAT model

Ecolab Inc., PRAT model

Average Dec 31, 2020 Dec 31, 2019 Dec 31, 2018 Dec 31, 2017 Dec 31, 2016
Selected Financial Data (US\$ in thousands)
Interest expense
Net loss from discontinued operations, net of tax
Net income (loss) attributable to Ecolab

Effective income tax rate (EITR)1

Interest expense, after tax2
Interest expense (after tax) and dividends

EBIT(1 – EITR)3

Short-term debt
Long-term debt, excluding current maturities
Total Ecolab shareholders’ equity
Total capital
Financial Ratios
Retention rate (RR)4
Return on invested capital (ROIC)5
Averages
RR
ROIC

FCFF growth rate (g)6

Based on: 10-K (filing date: 2021-02-26), 10-K (filing date: 2020-02-28), 10-K (filing date: 2019-03-01), 10-K (filing date: 2018-02-23), 10-K (filing date: 2017-02-24).

2020 Calculations

2 Interest expense, after tax = Interest expense × (1 – EITR)
= × (1 – )
=

3 EBIT(1 – EITR) = Net income (loss) attributable to Ecolab – Net loss from discontinued operations, net of tax + Interest expense, after tax
= +
=

4 RR = [EBIT(1 – EITR) – Interest expense (after tax) and dividends] ÷ EBIT(1 – EITR)
= [] ÷
=

5 ROIC = 100 × EBIT(1 – EITR) ÷ Total capital
= 100 × ÷
=

6 g = RR × ROIC
= ×
=

#### FCFF growth rate (g) implied by single-stage model

g = 100 × (Total capital, fair value0 × WACC – FCFF0) ÷ (Total capital, fair value0 + FCFF0)
= 100 × ( × ) ÷ ( + )
=

where:

Total capital, fair value0 = current fair value of Ecolab Inc.’s debt and equity (US\$ in thousands)
FCFF0 = the last year Ecolab Inc.’s free cash flow to the firm (US\$ in thousands)
WACC = weighted average cost of Ecolab Inc.’s capital

#### FCFF growth rate (g) forecast

Ecolab Inc., H-model

Year Value gt
1 g1
2 g2
3 g3
4 g4
5 and thereafter g5

where:
g1 is implied by PRAT model
g5 is implied by single-stage model
g2, g3 and g4 are calculated using linear interpoltion between g1 and g5

Calculations

g2 = g1 + (g5g1) × (2 – 1) ÷ (5 – 1)
= + () × (2 – 1) ÷ (5 – 1)
=

g3 = g1 + (g5g1) × (3 – 1) ÷ (5 – 1)
= + () × (3 – 1) ÷ (5 – 1)
=

g4 = g1 + (g5g1) × (4 – 1) ÷ (5 – 1)
= + () × (4 – 1) ÷ (5 – 1)
=