Contract accounting is used for development and production activities predominantly by Defense, Space & Security (BDS). The majority of business conducted by BDS is performed under contracts with the U.S. government and other customers that extend over several years. Contract accounting involves a judgmental process of estimating the total sales and costs for each contract resulting in the development of estimated cost of sales percentages. For each contract, the amount reported as cost of sales is determined by applying the estimated cost of sales percentage to the amount of revenue recognized. When the current estimates of total sales and costs for a contract indicate a loss, a provision for the entire loss on the contract is recognized.
Changes in estimated revenues, cost of sales and the related effect on operating income are recognized using a cumulative catch-up adjustment which recognizes in the current period the cumulative effect of the changes on current and prior periods based on a contract's percent complete. In 2012, 2011 and 2010 net favorable cumulative catch-up adjustments increased operating earnings by $379, $229 and $125, respectively and EPS by $0.33, $0.23 and $0.12, respectively.
Boeing combines contracts for accounting purposes when they are negotiated as a package with an overall profit margin objective. These essentially represent an agreement to do a single project for a single customer, involve interrelated construction activities with substantial common costs, and are performed concurrently or sequentially. When a group of contracts is combined, revenue and profit are earned uniformly over the performance of the combined contracts. Similarly, Boeing may segments a single contract or group of contracts when a clear economic decision has been made during contract negotiations that would produce different rates of profitability for each element or phase of the contract.
Sales related to fixed-price contracts are recognized as deliveries are made, except for certain fixed-price contracts that require substantial performance over an extended period before deliveries begin, for which sales are recorded based on the attainment of performance milestones. Sales related to contracts in which Boeing is reimbursed for costs incurred plus an agreed upon profit are recorded as costs are incurred. The Federal Acquisition Regulations provide guidance on the types of cost that will be reimbursed in establishing contract price. Contracts may contain provisions to earn incentive and award fees if specified targets are achieved. Incentive and award fees that can be reasonably estimated and are probable are recorded over the performance period of the contract. Incentive and award fees that cannot be reasonably estimated are recorded when awarded.
Boeing's Commercial Airplanes segment predominantly uses program accounting to account for cost of sales related to its programs. Program accounting is applicable to products manufactured for delivery under production-type contracts where profitability is realized over multiple contracts and years. Under program accounting, inventoriable production costs, program tooling and other non-recurring costs, and warranty costs are accumulated and charged to cost of sales by program instead of by individual units or contracts. A program consists of the estimated number of units (accounting quantity) of a product to be produced in a continuing, long-term production effort for delivery under existing and anticipated contracts. The determination of the accounting quantity is limited by the ability to make reasonably dependable estimates of the revenue and cost of existing and anticipated contracts. To establish the relationship of sales to cost of sales, program accounting requires estimates of (a) the number of units to be produced and sold in a program, (b) the period over which the units can reasonably be expected to be produced, and (c) the units' expected sales prices, production costs, program tooling and other non-recurring costs, and routine warranty costs for the total program.
Boeing recognizes sales for commercial airplane deliveries as each unit is completed and accepted by the customer. Sales recognized represent the price negotiated with the customer, adjusted by an escalation formula as specified in the customer agreement. The amount reported as cost of sales is determined by applying the estimated cost of sales percentage for the total remaining program to the amount of sales recognized for airplanes delivered and accepted by the customer. Changes in estimated revenues, cost of sales and the related effects on program margins are recognized prospectively except in cases where the program is determined to have a reach-forward loss in which case the loss is recognized in the current period.
Concession Sharing Arrangements
Boeing accounts for sales concessions to customers in consideration of their purchase of products and services as a reduction to revenue when the related products and services are delivered. The sales concessions incurred may be partially reimbursed by certain suppliers in accordance with concession sharing arrangements. Boeing records these reimbursements, which are presumed to represent reductions in the price of the vendor's products or services, as a reduction in Cost of products.
Spare Parts Revenue
Boeing recognizes sales of spare parts upon delivery and the amount reported as cost of sales is recorded at average cost.
Service revenue is recognized when the service is performed with the exception of U.S. government service agreements, which are accounted for using contract accounting. Service activities primarily include: support agreements associated with military aircraft and helicopter contracts, ongoing maintenance of International Space Station, commercial Delta launches and technical and flight operation services for commercial aircraft. Service revenue and associated cost of sales from pay-in-advance subscription fees are deferred and recognized as services are rendered.
Financial Services Revenue
Boeing records financial services revenue associated with sales-type/finance leases, operating leases, and notes receivable.
Lease and financing revenue arrangements are included in Sales of services on the Consolidated Statements of Operations. For sales-type/finance leases, Boeing records an asset at lease inception. This asset is recorded at the aggregate future minimum lease payments, estimated residual value of the leased equipment, and deferred incremental direct costs less unearned income. Income is recognized over the life of the lease to approximate a level rate of return on the net investment. Residual values, which are reviewed periodically, represent the estimated amount Boeing expects to receive at lease termination from the disposition of the leased equipment. Actual residual values realized could differ from these estimates. Declines in estimated residual value that are deemed other-than-temporary are recognized as Cost of services in the period in which the declines occur.
For operating leases, revenue on leased aircraft and equipment is recorded on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Operating lease assets, included in Customer financing, are recorded at cost and depreciated over the period that Boeing projects Boeing will hold the asset to an estimated residual value, using the straight-line method. Boeing periodically reviews estimates of residual value and recognizes forecasted changes by prospectively adjusting depreciation expense.
For notes receivable, notes are recorded net of any unamortized discounts and deferred incremental direct costs. Interest income and amortization of any discounts are recorded ratably over the related term of the note.
Boeing's wholly-owned insurance subsidiary, Astro Ltd., participates in a reinsurance pool for workers' compensation. The member agreements and practices of the reinsurance pool minimize any participating members' individual risk. Reinsurance revenues were $129, $144 and $139 during 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Reinsurance costs related to premiums and claims paid to the reinsurance pool were $128, $142 and $123 during 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Revenues and costs are presented net in Cost of services in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Source: Boeing Co., Annual Report
Boeing Co., Income Statement, Revenues
USD $ in millions
|12 months ended||Dec 31, 2012||Dec 31, 2011||Dec 31, 2010||Dec 31, 2009||Dec 31, 2008|
|Boeing Military Aircraft (BMA)||16,384||14,947||14,238||14,057||13,492|
|Network & Space Systems (N&SS)||7,584||8,673||9,455||10,877||11,338|
|Global Services & Support (GS&S)||8,639||8,356||8,250||8,727||7,217|
|Defense, Space & Security||32,607||31,976||31,943||33,661||32,047|
|Unallocated items and eliminations||(610)||(82)||(248)||(256)||(671)|
Source: Boeing Co. Annual Reports
|Revenues||Aggregate revenue recognized during the period (derived from goods sold, services rendered, insurance premiums, or other activities that constitute an entity's earning process). For financial services companies, also includes investment and interest income, and sales and trading gains.||Boeing Co.'s revenues increased from 2010 to 2011 and from 2011 to 2012.|